European Radiology

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 2200–2205 | Cite as

Automated double-cone-beam CT fusion technique. Enhanced evaluation of glue distribution in cases of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) embolisation

  • Giuseppe Faragò
  • V. Caldiera
  • C. Antozzi
  • A. Bellino
  • A. Innocenti
  • E. Ciceri



Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) are acquired diseases that represent the majority of all arteriovenous spinal shunts, leading to progressive and disabling myelopathy. Treatment is focused on accurately disconnecting the fistula point. We present our experience with the double-cone-beam CT fusion technique successfully applied to evaluate treatment results in a series of SDAVFs.


Between November 2011 and December 2015 we performed double-DynaCT acquisition (pre- and post-embolisation) in 12 cases of SDAVF.


A successful DynaCT fusion technique was only achieved in the group of patients with pre- and post-treatment images acquired at the same time as the treatment session, under general anaesthesia (4/12). DynaCT performed on different days proved to be inadequate for the automated fusion technique because of changes in the body position (8/12).


A pre-treatment flat-panel cone-beam CT with contrast, at the time of diagnostic angiography, can be very helpful to detect the correct level of the fistula and the relationship between the fistula and the surrounding structures. In case of the endovascular approach, additional post-treatment native acquisition merged with the pre-treatment acquisition (double-cone-beam CT fusion technique) permits to immediately evaluate the distribution of the glue cast and to confirm the success of the procedure.

Key Points

SDAVF treatment must be aimed to occlude the fistula point shunt.

Native post-operative cone-beam CT permits high-spatial-resolution imaging of the embolic cast.

The automated double-cone-beam CT fusion technique (pre/post) accurately demonstrates intravascular glue distribution after embolisation.

Patient movements should be avoided to obtain good technical results.


Spinal cord vascular disease Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula 3D imaging Endovascular procedures Cone-beam computed tomography 



The authors wish to thank Luca Brambilla, Siemens Application Specialist, for providing assistance during fusion post-processing. The scientific guarantor of this publication is Elisa Ciceri, MD. The authors of this manuscript declare no relationships with any companies, whose products or services may be related to the subject matter of the article. The authors state that this work has not received any funding. No complex statistical methods were necessary for this paper. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects (patients) in this study.

Methodology: observational, performed at one institution.


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Copyright information

© European Society of Radiology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Faragò
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. Caldiera
    • 1
  • C. Antozzi
    • 3
  • A. Bellino
    • 3
  • A. Innocenti
    • 4
  • E. Ciceri
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Interventional NeuroradiologyFoundation Neurological Institute “C. Besta”MilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Interventional NeuroradiologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo BestaMilanItaly
  3. 3.Department of Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular DiseasesFoundation Neurological Institute “C. Besta”MilanItaly
  4. 4.Department of Neuro-OncologyFoundation Neurological Institute “C. Besta”MilanItaly
  5. 5.Department of NeuroradiologyAzienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Borgo TrentoVeronaItaly

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