Genome-wide characterization of the WRKY gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) reveals its critical functions under different abiotic stresses
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The radish WRKY gene family was genome-widely identified and played critical roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses.
The WRKY is among the largest transcription factors (TFs) associated with multiple biological activities for plant survival, including control response mechanisms against abiotic stresses such as heat, salinity, and heavy metals. Radish is an important root vegetable crop and therefore characterization and expression pattern investigation of WRKY transcription factors in radish is imperative. In the present study, 126 putative WRKY genes were retrieved from radish genome database. Protein sequence and annotation scrutiny confirmed that RsWRKY proteins possessed highly conserved domains and zinc finger motif. Based on phylogenetic analysis results, RsWRKYs candidate genes were divided into three groups (Group I, II and III) with the number 31, 74, and 20, respectively. Additionally, gene structure analysis revealed that intron–exon patterns of the WRKY genes are highly conserved in radish. Linkage map analysis indicated that RsWRKY genes were distributed with varying densities over nine linkage groups. Further, RT-qPCR analysis illustrated the significant variation of 36 RsWRKY genes under one or more abiotic stress treatments, implicating that they might be stress-responsive genes. In total, 126 WRKY TFs were identified from the R. sativus genome wherein, 35 of them showed abiotic stress-induced expression patterns. These results provide a genome-wide characterization of RsWRKY TFs and baseline for further functional dissection and molecular evolution investigation, specifically for improving abiotic stress resistances with an ultimate goal of increasing yield and quality of radish.
KeywordsRaphanus sativus WRKY transcription factor Abiotic stress RT-qPCR
Basic local alignment search tool
Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction
The current work was partly funded by Grants from the Natural Science Foundation of China (31372064, 31501759, 31601766), National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0100204-25), Key Technology R&D Program of Jiangsu Province (BE2016379), and Jiangsu Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Fund (CX(16)1012).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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