The cyclic lipopeptide orfamide induces systemic resistance in rice to Cochliobolus miyabeanus but not to Magnaporthe oryzae
The Pseudomonas- derived cyclic lipopeptide orfamide can induce resistance to Cochliobolus miyabeanus but not to Magnaporthe oryzae in rice. Abscisic acid signaling is involved in the induced systemic resistance response triggered by orfamide.
Diverse natural products produced by beneficial Pseudomonas species have the potential to trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants, and thus may contribute to control of diseases in crops. Some beneficial Pseudomonas spp. can produce cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs), amphiphilic molecules composed of a fatty acid tail linked to an oligopeptide which is cyclized. CLPs can have versatile biological functions, but the capacity of Pseudomonas-derived CLPs in triggering ISR responses has barely been studied. Pseudomonas protegens and related species can produce orfamide-type CLPs. Here we show that in rice, orfamides can act as ISR elicitors against the necrotrophic fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the causal agent of brown spot disease, but are not active against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Orfamide A can trigger early defensive events and activate transcripts of defense-related genes in rice cell suspension cultures, but does not cause cell death. Further testing in rice cell suspension cultures and rice plants showed that abscisic acid signaling, the transcriptional activator OsWRKY4 and pathogenesis-related protein PR1b are triggered by orfamide A and may play a role in the ISR response against C. miyabeanus.
KeywordsPseudomonas protegens CHA0 Orfamide Induced systemic resistance Cochliobolus miyabeanus Plant hormones Pathogenesis-related proteins
ZM sincerely acknowledges PhD scholarships from China Scholarship Council (CSC, No.201204910376) and a special research fund (Bijzonder Onderzoeksfonds, BOF) from Ghent University. We would like to thank N. Lemeire (Ghent University) and I. Delaere (Ghent University) for technical assistance during this study.
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