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Der Pathologe

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 491–499 | Cite as

Okuläre Melanome

Ein „Update“
  • H. Kalirai
  • P. L. Müller
  • D. Jaehne
  • S. E. Coupland
Schwerpunkt: Tumoren der Sinnesorgane

Zusammenfassung

Das Melanom ist der häufigste primäre Tumor des Auges im Erwachsenenalter. Etwa 95 % der okulären Melanome entstehen intraokular in der Uvea (d. h. Iris, Ziliarkörper und Chorioidea), wohingegen die verbleibenden 5 % in der Konjunktiva lokalisiert sind. Obgleich allgemein angenommen wird, dass sich uveale und konjunktivale Melanome aus Melanozyten entwickeln, unterscheiden sich die beiden Entitäten sowohl klinisch als auch biologisch. Darüber hinaus sind okuläre Melanome von den häufigeren Melanomen der Dermis abzugrenzen. Vor kurzem wurden große Fortschritte im Verständnis der zugrunde liegenden Pathophysiologie erzielt. Fortschritte auf molekularer Ebene haben die Prognoseabschätzung und die Identifizierung von therapeutischen Angriffspunkten v. a. für das uveale Melanom verbessert. Dieser Artikel zielt darauf ab, aktuelle Fortschritte bei der molekularen Charakterisierung von uvealen und konjunktivalen Melanomen zu diskutieren und deren Einsatzmöglichkeiten in der Entwicklung personalisierter Therapiestrategien aufzuzeigen.

Schlüsselwörter

Uvea Genetik Metastasen Therapie, zielgerichtete Immunotherapie 

Ocular melanomas

An update

Abstract

Melanoma is the most common type of primary cancer to affect the adult eye. Approximately 95% of ocular melanomas are intraocular and arise from the uvea (i. e. iris, ciliary body, and choroid), while the remaining 5% are located in the conjunctiva. Although both uveal and conjunctival melanomas are thought to derive from malignantly transformed melanocytes, uveal melanoma is clinically and biologically distinct from conjunctival melanoma, and indeed from its more common cutaneous counterpart. Intense efforts have been recently made to understand the molecular biology involved in the development of ocular melanomas, and in their progression. Molecular advances, particularly for uveal melanoma, have enhanced prognostication and the identification of rational therapeutic targets for disseminated disease. In this review, recent advances in the molecular characterisation of both uveal and conjunctival melanomas are discussed, and how these may be used to develop personalised therapeutic strategies.

Keywords

Uvea Genetics Metastasis Targeted therapy Immunotherapy 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

H. Kalirai, P.L. Müller, D. Jaehne und S.E. Coupland geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Kalirai
    • 1
  • P. L. Müller
    • 2
  • D. Jaehne
    • 3
  • S. E. Coupland
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Liverpool Ocular Oncology Research Group, Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Institute of Translational MedicineUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolGroßbritannien
  2. 2.Universitäts-Augenklinik BonnBonnDeutschland
  3. 3.Institut für Gewebediagnostik Pathologie MVZ HELIOS Klinik Emil von BehringBerlinDeutschland
  4. 4.Institute of Translational Medicine, 6th Floor Duncan BuildingUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolGroßbritannien

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