Rubber nanocomposites based on carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber (XNBR/XSBR) with different compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100) and various montmorillonite (OMMT) contents with compatibilizer dichlorocarbene-modified SBR (DCSBR) were prepared. The results of rheometric tests showed that with adding DCSBR compatibilizer and increasing OMMT, the optimum curing time and scorch time decreased. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated adding DCSBR compatibilizer causes increase in distance between the layers of silicate plates in the rubber phase of nanocomposites compared to OMMT powder. This phenomenon was also confirmed by direct observation of the microstructure by a transmitted electron microscope. The addition of OMMT and DCSBR compatibilizer surprisingly increased the mechanical properties such as elongation at break, tensile modulus, tensile strength and fatigue strength of the XNBR/XSBR (80/20).
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Urban D, Takamura K. (2002) Polymer dispersions and their industrial applications. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 121. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pi.1257
Calvert KO (1982) Polymer latices and their applications. Applied Science, London. 120. https://books.google.com/books. ISNB = 0412710404
Krzemińska S, Lipińska L, Woluntarski M, Mariusz O, Ślusarczyk C, Biniaś W, Smejda-Krzewicka A (2019) Hybrid XNBR composites with carbon and aluminosilicate nanofillers. Polym Bull pp 1–32
Azizli MJ, Khonakdar HA, Mokhtary M, Goodarzi M (2019) Investigating the effect of organoclay montmorillonite and rubber ratio composition on the enhancement compatibility and properties of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer hybrid elastomer nanocomposites. J Polym Res 26:221–241
Zhang Y, Park SJ (2017) Enhanced interfacial interaction by grafting carboxylated macromolecular chains on nanodiamond surfaces for epoxy based thermosets. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys 55:1890–1898
Vivaldo-Lima E, Saldívar-Guerra E (2013) Handbook of polymer synthesis, characterization, and processing: Wiley Online Library. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/97811184807793
Carpenter JS, Bai C, Escobedo JP, Hwang JY, Ikhmayies S, Li B, Li J, Neves S, Peng Z, Zhang M. (2015) Characterization of minerals, metals, and materials, Springer International Publishing, Cham. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319513812
Satyanarayana M, Bhowmick AK, Kumar KD (2016) Preferentially fixing nanoclays in the phases of incompatible carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR)-natural rubber (NR) blend using thermodynamic approach and its effect on physico mechanical properties. Polymer 99:21–43
El-Nemr KF, Ali MAM, El-Sayed SN, Zahran MK (2018) Physical and chemical properties of gamma-irradiated styrene–butadiene rubber/vermiculite clay nanocomposites modified using maleic anhydride. Polym Bull 75:3587–3606
Mansilla MA, Valentín J, López-Manchado M, González-Jiménez A, Marzocca AJ (2016) Natural rubber/styrene-butadiene rubber blends prepared by solution mixing: influence of vulcanization temperature using a Semi-EV sulfur curing system on the microstructural properties. Eur Polym J 81:365–375
Salzano de Luna M, Filippone G (2016) Effects of nanoparticles on the morphology of immiscible polymer blends challenges and opportunities. Eur Polym J 79:198–218
Poornima Vijayan P, Puglia D, Pionteck J, Kenny JM, Thomas S (2015) Liquid-rubber-modified epoxy/clay nanocomposites: effect of dispersion methods on morphology and ultimate properties. Polym Bull 72:1703–1722
Zhang X, Xue X, Yin Q, Jia H, Wang J, Ji Q, Xu Z (2017) Enhanced compatibility and mechanical properties of carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/styrene butadiene rubber by using graphene oxide as reinforcing filler. Compo Part B Eng 111:243–250
Ramesan MT, Manoj Kumar TK, Alex R, Kuriakose B (2002) Investigations on the addition of styrene butadiene rubber in natural rubber and dichlorocarbene modified styrene butadiene rubber blends. J Mater Sci 37:109–116
Ramesan MT, Alex R (2001) Compatibilization of SBR/NBR blends using chemically modified styrene-co-butadiene rubber Part 2. Effect of compatibilizer loading. Polym Int 50:1298–1308
Roy K, Potiyaraj P (2019) Exploring the comparative effect of silane coupling agents with different functional groups on the cure, mechanical and thermal properties of nano-alumina (Al2O3)-based natural rubber (NR) compounds. Polym Bull 76:883–902
Sadeghalvaad M, Dabiri E, Zahmatkesh S, Afsharimoghadam P (2019) Preparation and properties evaluation of nitrile rubber nanocomposites reinforced with organo-clay, CaCO3, and SiO2 nanofillers. Polym Bull 76:3819–3839
Azizli MJ, Abbasizadeh S, Hoseini M, Rezaeinia S, Azizli E (2017) Influence of blend composition and organic cloisite 15A content in the structure of isobutylene–isoprene rubber/ethylene propylene diene monomer composites for investigation of morphology and mechanical properties. J Compos Mater 51:1861–1873
Azizli MJ, Naderi G, Bakhshandeh GR, Soltani S, Esmizadeh E (2014) Improvement in physical and mechanical properties of IIR/CR rubber blend organoclay nanocomposites. Rubber Chem Technol 87:10–20
Alipour A, Naderi G, Ghoreishy MH (2013) Effect of nanoclay content and matrix composition on properties and stress–strain behavior of NR/EPDM nanocomposites. J Appl Sci 127:1275–1284
Ai C, Gong G, Zhao X, Liu P (2017) Determination of carboxyl content in carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) after degradation via olefin cross metathesis. Polym Test 60:250–252
Azizli MJ, Ziaee M, Rezaeinia S, Seyfi J, Azizli MH (2016) Studying the roles of nanoclay and blend composition on the improved properties of natural rubber/chloroprene composites. Polym Compos 39:1562–1574
Keramati M, Ghasemi I, Karrabi M, Azizi H (2012) Microcellular foaming of PP/EPDM/organoclay nanocomposites: the effect of the distribution of nanoclay on foam morphology. Polym J 44:433–438
Jeddi J, Yousefzade O, Babaei A, Ghanbar S, Rostami A (2016) Morphology, microstructure and rheological properties of SAN/EPDM nanocomposites: investigating the role of organoclay type and order of mixing. Mater Chem Phys 187:191–202
Stöckelhuber KW, Das A, Jurk R, Heinrich G (2010) Contribution of physico-chemical properties of interfaces on dispersibility, adhesion and flocculation of filler particles in rubber. Polymer 51:1954–1963
Mfunt J (1988) Dynamic testing and reinforcement of rubber. Rubber Chem Technol 61:842–865
Fu X, Huang G, Xie Z, Xing W (2015) New insights into reinforcement mechanism of nanoclay-filled isoprene rubber during uniaxial deformation by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. RSC Adv 5:25171–25182
Klüppel M, Heinrich G (1994) Network structure and mechanical properties of sulfur-cured rubbers. Macromolecules 27:3596
Toki S, Burger C, Hsiao BS, Amnuaypornsri S, Sakdapipanich J, Tanaka Y (2008) Multiscaled microstructures in natural rubber characterized by synchrotron Xray scattering and optical microscopy. J Polym Sci Part B 46:2456–2464
Diani J, Fayolle B, Gilormini P (2009) A review on the Mullins effect. Eur Polym J 45:601–612
Teh PL, Mohd Ishak ZA, Hashim AS, Karger-Kocsis J, Ishiaku US (2004) On the potential of organoclay with respect to conventional fillers (carbon black silica) for epoxidized natural rubber compatibilized natural rubber vulcanizates. J Appl Polym Sci 94:2438–2445
Wang S, Zhang Y, Peng Z, Zhang Y (2005) New method for preparing polybutadiene rubber/clay composites. J Appl Polym Sci 98:227–237
Dong B, Liu C, Zhang L, Wu Y (2015) Preparation fracture and fatigue of exfoliated graphene oxide/natural rubber composites. RSC Adv 5:17140–17148
Laskowska A, Zaborski M, Boiteux G, Gain O, Marzec A, Maniukiewicz W (2014) Ionic elastomers based on carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) and magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxide (hydrotalcite). eXPRESS Polym Lett 8:374–386
Jovanović V, Samaržija-Jovanović S, Budinski-Simendić J, Marković G, Marinović-Cincović M (2013) Composites based on carbon black reinforced NBR/EPDM rubber blends. Compos B Eng 45:333–340
Hisham A, Salwa H, Sabbagh E, Magda E, Assche TGV, Barhoum A (2018) Assessment of provoked compatibility of NBR/SBR polymer blend with montmorillonite amphiphiles from the thermal degradation kinetics. Polym Bull 75:1417–1430
Zhang C, Wang J, Zhao Y (2017) Effect of dendrimer modified montmorillonite on structure and properties of EPDM nanocomposites. Polymer Test 62:41–50
Varghese S, Karger-Kocsis J (2003) Melt-compounded natural rubber nanocomposites with pristine and organophilic layered silicates of natural and synthetic origin. J Appl Polym Sci 91:813–819
Wang Y, Zhang H, Wu Y, Yang J, Zhang L (2005) Structure and properties of strain-induced crystallization rubber-clay nanocomposites by co-coagulating the rubber latex and clay aqueous suspension. J Appl Polym Sci 96:318–323
Samadi A, Razzaghi Kashani M (2010) Effects of organoclay modifier on physical and mechanical properties of butyl based rubber nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 116:2101–2109
Financial support by Khazra Sazan Rad Polymer Parsian, Consulting Polymer Engineers CO, is gratefully acknowledged.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Azizli, M.J., Parham, S., Abbasizadeh, S. et al. Preparation and characterization of carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber (XNBR/XSBR) nanocomposites in the presence of dichlorocarbene-modified SBR (DCSBR) compatibilizer and montmorillonite. Polym. Bull. 78, 1637–1669 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-020-03177-5