This study includes the application of graft copolymer (polyacrylamide-grafted polyvinyl pyrrolidone—PVP-g-PAM) as wound healing agent. It is hypothesized that the branches of the graft copolymer adsorb at various colloidal components of blood plasma—thus assisting in formation of a networked structure, i.e. ‘blood clot’. Further, the adhesive property of graft copolymer supports in wound closure and immobilization of pathogens. Wound healing efficiency of PVP-g-PAM has been investigated ‘in vivo’ by excision and incision wound model. The 100% wound contraction has been shown by PVP-g-PAM after 13 days. This is superior to both in cases of standard drug and ungrafted polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), which fails to achieve complete wound closure even after 21 days. Additionally, the graft copolymer-treated mice’s skin exhibited higher tensile strength than that of standard drug, PVP and stitched model.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ghosh S, Cabral JD, Hanton LR, Moratti SC (2016) Strong poly(ethylene oxide) based gel adhesives via oxime cross-linking. Acta Biomate 29:206–214
Mogosanu GD, Grumezescu AM (2014) Natural and synthetic polymers for wounds and burns dressing. Int J Pharm 463:127–136
Han SS (2005) Topical formulations of water-soluble chitin as a wound healing assistant. Fiber Polym 6:219–223
Ulubayram K, Aksu E, Gurhan SID, Serbetci K, Hasirci N (2002) Cytotoxicity evaluation of gelatin sponges prepared with different cross-linking agents. J Biomater Sci Polym 13:1203–1219
Choi YS, Lee SB, Hong SR, Lee YM, Song KW, Park MH (2001) Studies on gelatin-based sponges. Part III: a comparative study of cross-linked gelatin/alginate, gelatin/hyaluronate and chitosan/hyaluronate sponges and their application as a wound dressing in full-thickness skin defect of rat. J Mater Sci Mater Med 12:67–73
Goh YF, Shakir I, Hussain R (2013) Electrospun fibers for tissue engineering, drug delivery, and wound dressing. J Mater Sci 48:3027–3054
Supaphol P, Suwantong O, Sangsanoh P, Srinivasan S, Jayakumar R, Nair SV (2012) Electrospinning of biocompatible polymers and their potentials in biomedical applications. Adv Polym Sci 246:213–240
Sierra DH (1993) Fibrin sealant adhesive systems: a review of their chemistry, material properties and clinical applications. J Biomater Appl 7:309–352
Spotnitz WD, Burks SG, Prabhu R (2005) Fibrin-based adhesives and hemostatic agents. In: Quinn JV, Decker BC (eds) Tissue adhesives in clinical medicine. Hamilton, Elliniko, pp 77–112
Quinn JV (2005) Tissue adhesives in clinical medicine. In: Quinn JV, Decker BC (eds) Tissue adhesives in clinical medicine. Hamilton, Elliniko, pp 27–76
Radosevich M, Goubran HI, Burnouf T (1997) Fibrin sealant: scientific rationale, production methods, properties, and current clinical use. Vox Sang 72:133–143
Joch C (2003) The safety of fibrin sealants. Cardiovasc Surg 11(1):23–28
Shalaby SW, Shalaby WSW (2004) Cyanoacrylate-based systems as tissue adhesives. In: Shalaby SW, Burg KJL (eds) Absorbable and biodegradable polymers. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 59–75
Mehdizadeh M, Weng H, Gyawali D, Tang L, Yang J (2012) Injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired tissue bioadhesives with high wet strength for sutureless wound closure. Biomaterials 33:7972–7983
Busuttil RWA (2003) Comparison of antifibrinolytic agents used in hemostatic fibrin sealants. J Am Coll Surg 197:1021–1028
Caulfield MJ, Qiao GG, Solomon DH (2002) Some aspects of the properties and degradation of polyacrylamides. Chem Rev 102:3067–3083
Vers LM (1999) Determination of acrylamide monomer in polyacrylamide degradation studies by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci 37:486–494
Sarkar AK, Mandre NR, Panda AB, Pal S (2013) Amylopectin grafted with poly (acrylic acid): development and application of a high performance flocculant. Carbohydr Polym 95:753–759
Sarkar AK, Pal A, Ghorai S, Mandre NR, Pal S (2014) Efficient removal of malachite green dye using biodegradable graft copolymer derived from amylopectin and poly(acrylic acid). Carbohydr Polym 111:108–115
Das R, Pal S (2013) Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose grafted with polyacrylamide: application in controlled release of 5-amino salicylic acid. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 110:236–241
Das D, Das R, Mandal J, Ghosh A, Pal S (2014) Dextrin crosslinked with poly(lactic acid): a novel hydrogel for controlled drug release application. J Appl Polym Sci 40039:1–12
Pal S, Pal A (2012) Synthesis and characterizing a novel polymeric flocculant based on amylopectin-graft-polyacrylamidegraft-polyacrylic acid [(AP-g-PAM)-g-PAA]. Polym Bull 69:545–560
Das R, Panda AB, Pal S (2012) Synthesis and characterization of a novel polymeric hydrogel based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose grafted with polyacrylamide. Cellulose 19:933–945
Das R, Ghorai S, Pal S (2013) Flocculation characteristics of polyacrylamide grafted hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose: an efficient biodegradable flocculant. Chem Eng J 229:144–152
Krishnamoorthi S, Mal D, Singh RP (2007) Characterization of graft copolymer based on polyacrylamide and dextran. Carbohydr Polym 69:371–377
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/iig/index.cfm. Accessed April 7, 2010—search on povidone for list of approved items. Inactive Ingredients in FDA Approved Drugs
Darwis D, Hilmy N, Hardiningsih L, Erlinda T (1993) Poly(Nvinylpyrrolidone) hydrogels: 1. Radiation polymerization and crosslinking of N-vinylpyrrolidone. Radiat Phys Chem 42:907–910
Himly N, Darwis D, Hardiningsih L (1993) Poly(n-vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogels: 2. Hydrogel composites as wound dressing for tropical environment. Radiat Phys Chem 4:911–914
Kamoun EA, Chen X, Mohy EMS, Kenawy E-RS (2015) Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels, for wound dressing applications: a review of remarkably blended polymers. Arab J Chem 8:1–14
Ghosh S, Pal S (2013) Modified tamarind kernel polysaccharide: a novel matrix for control release of aspirin. Int J Biol Macromol 58:296–300
Pal S, Sen G, Ghosh S, Singh RP (2012) High performance polymeric flocculants based on modified polysaccharides-Microwave assisted synthesis. Carbohydr Polym 87:336–342
Pal P, Pandey JP, Sen G (2017) Sythesis of polyacrylamide grafted polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP-g-PAM) and study of its application in algal biomass harvesting. Ecol Eng 100:19–27
Kokane DD, More RY, Kale MB, Nehete MN, Mehendale PC, Gadgoli CH (2009) Evaluation of wound healing activity of root of Mimosa pudica. J Ethnopharmacol 124:311–315
Vogel HG (2002) Drug discovery and evaluation-pharmacological assays. Springer, Berlin, pp 951–952
MacKay D, Miller L (2003) Nutritional support for wound healing. Altern Med Rev 8:359–377
Mokadas E, Rotimi VO, Sanyal SC (1998) In vitro activity of Piperacilin itazobactam versus other broad -spectrum antibiotics against nosocomial gram-negative pathogen isolated from burn patients. J Chemother 10:208–214
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (2008) Indian medicinal plants. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, pp 35–45
Khare CP (2007) Indian medicinal plants-an illustrated dictionary, 6th edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 104–105
Nema A, Gupta N, Jain UK (2012) Evaluation of wound healing activity of Tinospora cordifolia. Willd Der Pharm Sin 1:126–130
Houghton PJ, Hylands PJ, Mensah AY, Hensel A, Deters AM (2003) In vitro tests and ethnopharmacological investigations: wound healing as an example. J Ethnopharmacol 100:100–107
Morton JJ, Malone MH (1972) Evaluation of vulnerary activity by an open wound procedure in rats. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1:117–126
Erlich HP, Hunt TK (1968) Effects of cortisone and vitamin ‘A’ on wound healing. Ann Surg 3:324–328
Ram S, Fecht H-J (2011) Modulating up—energy transfer and violet- blue light emission in gold nanoparticles with surface adsorption of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) molecules. J Phys Chem C 115:7817–7828
Kaity S, Isaac J, Kumar PM, Bose A, Wong TW, Ghosh A (2013) Microwave assisted synthesis of acrylamide grafted locust bean gum and its application in drug delivery. Carbohydr Polym 98:1083–1094
Oh T-J, Nam J-H, Jung YM (2009) Molecular miscible blend of poly(2-cyano-1-4-phenyleneterephthalamide) and polyvinylpyrrilidone characterized by two- dimensional correlation FTIR and solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Vib Spectrosc 51:15–21
Athawale VD, Rathi SC (1997) Synthesis and characterization of starch-poly(methacrylic acid) graft copolymers. J Appl Polym Sci 66:1399–1403
Chen Y, Zhang Y, Wang F, Meng W, Yang X, Li P, Jiang J, Tan H, Zheng Y (2016) Preparation of porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) superabsorbent by solvent precipitation and its application as a hemostatic wound dressing. Mater Sci Eng C 63:18–29
The authors are grateful to Prof. S. Samanta, Head of the department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi-835215, Jharkhand, India. This study has been carried out under his kind guidance. We are also thankful to CIF-BIT Mesra for its kind assistance.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Pal, P., Rangra, N., Samanta, S. et al. Graft copolymer of PVP—A sutureless, haemostatic bioadhesive for wound healing application. Polym. Bull. 77, 5191–5212 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-019-03013-5
- Graft copolymer
- Wound healing
- Excision model
- Incision model
- Tensile strength