Polymer Bulletin

, Volume 76, Issue 2, pp 747–762 | Cite as

Plasticized jackfruit seed starch: a viable alternative for the partial replacement of petroleum-based polymer blends

  • A. W. M. KaharEmail author
  • M. Lingeswarran
  • M. Z. Amirah Hulwani
  • H. Ismail
Original Paper


Blends based on recycled high-density polyethylene (rHDPE) and jackfruit seed starch were prepared using a melt blending method. A total of three blend systems was studied: rHDPE/native starch blends, rHDPE/thermoplastic starch (TPS) blends and rHDPE/citric acid-treated thermoplastic starch (TPSCA) blends at ratios of 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40. Modifications were made to overcome the problems of dealing with starch based blends, due to the blends’ compatibility with hydrophobic rHDPE and the hydrophilic nature of starch. For the rHDPE/starch blends, the tensile properties were poorer than those of neat rHDPE, with lower ultimate tensile strength and elongation at break, but higher Young’s modulus. Upon the conversion of starch into thermoplastic starch, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), dispersion and thermal stability slightly improved. A blend ratio of 90/10 exhibited the highest tensile strength, while the 60/40 ratio exhibited the highest Young’s modulus and better thermal stability. Similar trends were observed in rHDPE blended with citric acid-treated thermoplastic starch, with much better interfacial bonding between the rHDPE matrix and the TPSCA phase, as observed by SEM, thus improving the thermal stability as well as the tensile properties.


Jackfruit seed starch Recycled high-density polyethylene Thermoplastic starch 



The authors would like to thank Universiti Malaysia Perlis for the supply of raw materials and equipment provided. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Kementerian Pendidikan Tinggi under the Grant UniMAP/RMIC/FRGS/9003-00601.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. W. M. Kahar
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Lingeswarran
    • 1
  • M. Z. Amirah Hulwani
    • 1
  • H. Ismail
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Materials EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PerlisJejawi, PerlisMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Materials and Mineral Resources EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong Tebal, Seberang Perai SelatanMalaysia

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