Surface morphology of chlorine and castor oil-based polyurethane–urea coatings

  • Shaik Allauddin
  • Varaprasad Somisetti
  • Ramanuj Narayan
  • Raju V. S. N. Kothapalli
Original Paper
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

The present work deals with surface properties of chlorine containing polyurethane–urea (PU–urea)-coating films. First, isocyanate-terminated pre-polymers were synthesized using castor oil as renewable resource, isophorone diisocyanate, and different weight percentages of 2-chloroethanol and 2,2,2-trichloroethanol. The resultant isocyanate-terminated pre-polymers were cured under atmospheric moisture to obtain chlorine containing PU–urea coatings. The surface properties of the coating films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. All characterization techniques suggest that the presence of chlorine species on the surface results in different surface properties when compared to control PU–urea (without the chlorine group)-coating film surface. The viscoelastic, swelling, and contact angle (CA) properties were studied for the prepared coating films. The glass-transition temperatures (Tg) were obtained in the region 29.2–35 °C for the coating films. Tg increased by increasing the chlorine content in polyurethane-coating formulations. The CA for the coating films was found to be in the range of 76°–64° and these properties were found to be decreased with increase in the weight percent content of the chlorine moiety in the final coating formulation. Similarly, the higher chlorine content-coating films have shown more water uptake properties. The overall comparative results indicate that the chlorine containing PU–urea-coating films have different surface-coating properties and these depend upon the chlorine content in the final coating formulation as compared with PU–urea surfaces.

Keywords

Castor oil IPDI Chlorine Contact angle SEM AFM 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi and Director, CSIR-IICT for financial support in the form of a research fellowship. The present research was supported by CSIR under the Intel-Coat Project (CSC-0114).

References

  1. 1.
    Kaplan DL (1998) Introduction to biopolymers from renewable resources. Biopolymers from renewable resources. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Raquez JM, Deléglise M, Lacrampe MF, Krawczak P (2010) Thermosetting (bio) materials derived from renewable resources: a critical review. Prog Polym Sci 35:487–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marques Pereira-Júnior OC, Rahal SC, Iamaguti P, Felisbino SL, Pavan PT, Vulcano LC (2007) Comparison between polyurethanes containing castor oil (soft segment) and cancellous bone autograft in the treatment of segmental bone defect induced in rabbits. J Biomater Appl 21:283–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Woods G (1990) The ICI polyurethanes book, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pfister DP, Xia Y, Larock RC (2011) Recent advances in vegetable oil-based polyurethanes. Chemsuschem 4:703–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lligadas G, Ronda JC, Galia M, Cádiz V (2010) Plant oils as platform chemicals for polyurethane synthesis: current state-of-the-art. Biomacromol 11:2825–2835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Höfer R, Daute P, Grützmacher R, Westfechtel A (1997) Oleochemical polyols—a new raw material source for polyurethane coatings and floorings. J Coat Technol 69:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu Y, Petrovic Z, Das S, Wilkes GL (2008) Morphology and properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes with dangling chains in ricinoleate-based soft segments. Polymer 49:4248–4258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Petrović ZS (2008) Polyurethanes from vegetable oils. Polym Rev 48:109–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chattopadhyay DK, Raju KVSN (2007) Structural engineering of polyurethane coatings for high performance applications. Prog Poly Sci 32:352–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shaik A, Narayan R, Raju KVSN (2014) Synthesis and properties of siloxane-crosslinked polyurethane-urea/silica hybrid films from castor oil. J Coat Technol Res 11:397–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Janik H, Vancso J (2005) The influence of hard segment crosslinking on the morphology and mechanical properties of segmented poly (ester-urethanes). Polimery 50:139–142Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stribeck A, Pöselt E, Eling B, Jokari-Sheshdeh F, Hoell A (2017) Thermoplastic polyurethanes with varying hard-segment components. Mechanical performance and a filler-crosslink conversion of hard domains as monitored by SAXS. Eur Polym J 94:340–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reddy KR, Raghu AV, Jeong HM (2008) Synthesis and characterization of novel polyurethanes based on 4,4′-{1,4-phenylenebis [methylylidenenitrilo]} diphenol. Polym Bull 60:609–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reddy KR, Raghu AV, Jeong HM, Siddaramaiah (2009) Synthesis and characterization of pyridine-based polyurethanes. Des Monomers Polym 12:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Choi SH, Kim DH, Raghu AV, Reddy KR, Lee HI, Yoon KS, Jeong HM, Kim BK (2012) Properties of graphene/waterborne polyurethane nanocomposites cast from colloidal dispersion mixtures. J Macromol Sci B 51:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aslzadeh MM, Mir Mohamad Sadeghi G, Abdouss M (2012) Synthesis and characterization of chlorine-containing flame-retardant polyurethane nanocomposites via in situ polymerization. J Appl Polym Sci 123:437–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ye L, Meng XY, Liu XM, Tang JH, Li ZM (2009) Flame-retardant and mechanical properties of high-density rigid polyurethane foams filled with decabrominated dipheny ethane and expandable graphite. J Appl Polym Sci 111:2372–2380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    El Khatib W, Youssef B, Bunel C, Mortaigne B (2003) Fireproofing of polyurethane elastomers by reactive organophosphonates. Polym Int 52:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Khatua S, Hsieh YL (1997) Chlorine degradation of polyether-based polyurethane. J Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem 35:3263–3273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Raynor RJ (1992) Olin Corporation, assignee. Chlorination of amide containing oligomers and polymers. United States patent US 5,093,431Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    John Wiley & Sons (2008) Characterization and analysis of polymers. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yaseen M, Raju KVSN (1982) A critical analysis of various methods for preparation of free films of organic coatings. Prog Org Coat 10:125–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jena KK, Narayan R, Raju KVSN (2010) Hyperbranched polyester based on the core + AB2 approach: synthesis and structural investigation. J Appl Polym Sci 118:280–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jena KK, Raju KVSN, Prathab B, Aminabhavi TM (2007) Hyperbranched polyesters: synthesis, characterization, and molecular simulations. J Phys Chem B 111:8801–8811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jena KK, Raju KVSN (2007) Synthesis and characterization of hyperbranched polyurethane-urea/silica based hybrid coatings. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:6408–6416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chattopadhyay DK, Sreedhar B, Raju KVSN (2006) Influence of varying hard segments on the properties of chemically crosslinked moisture-cured polyurethane-urea. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys 44:102–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Allauddin S, Chandran MA, Jena KK, Narayan R, Raju KVSN (2013) Synthesis and characterization of APTMS/melamine cured hyperbranched polyester-epoxy hybrid coatings. Prog Org Coat 76:1402–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Florian P, Jena KK, Allauddin S, Narayan R, Raju KVSN (2010) Preparation and characterization of waterborne hyperbranched polyurethane-urea and their hybrid coatings. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:4517–4527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Smalley RK, Wakeld BJ (1970) Correlation tables for infrared spectra. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 165–195Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mishra AK, Chattopadhyay DK, Sreedhar B, Raju KVSN (2006) FT-IR and XPS studies of polyurethane-urea-imide coatings. Prog Org Coat 55:231–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chattopadhyay DK, Panda SS, Raju KVSN (2005) Thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy acrylate/methacrylates UV cured coatings. Prog Org Coat 54:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Papirer E, Lacroix R, Donnet JB, Nansé G, Fioux P (1995) XPS study of the halogenation of carbon black—part 2. Chlorination. Carbon 33:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hubert J, Poleunis C, Delcorte A, Laha P, Bossert J, Lambeets S, Ozkan A, Bertrand P, Terryn H, Reniers F (2013) Plasma polymerization of C4Cl6 and C2H2Cl4 at atmospheric pressure. Polymer 54:4085–4092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vasquez M, Cruz GJ, Olayo MG, Timoshina T, Morales J, Olayo R (2006) Chlorine dopants in plasma synthesized heteroaromatic polymers. Polymer 47:7864–7870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Abdelkader VK, Scelfo S, García-Gallarín C, Godino-Salido ML, Domingo-García M, López-Garzón FJ, Pérez-Mendoza M (2013) Carbon tetrachloride cold plasma for extensive chlorination of carbon nanotubes. J Phys Chem C 117:16677–16685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Atzei D, Elsener B, Manfredini M, Marchetti A, Malagoli M, Galavotti F, Rossi A (2003) Radiation-induced migration of additives in PVC-based biomedical disposable devices Part 2. Surface analysis by XPS. Surf Interface Anal 35:673–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Real LP, Ferraria AM, do Rego AB (2007) The influence of weathering conditions on the properties of poly (vinyl chloride) for outdoor applications. An analytical study using surface analysis techniques. Polym Test 26:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Xu J, Shi W, Pang W (2006) Synthesis and shape memory effects of Si–O–Si cross-linked hybrid polyurethanes. Polymer 47:457–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kovačević V, Šmit I, Hace D, Sućeska M, Mudri I, Bravar M (1993) Role of the polyurethane component in the adhesive composition on the hydrolytic stability of the adhesive. Int J Adhes Adhes 13:126–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kovacevic V, Kljajie-Malinovic LJ, Smit I, Bravar M, Agic A, Cerovecki Z (1990) Adhesive composition systems in degradative conditions. Adhesion, vol 14. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 126–160Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zia KM, Barikani M, Zuber M, Bhatti IA, Bhatti HN (2008) Morphological studies of polyurethane elastomers extended with alpha, omega alkane diols. Iran Polym J 17:61–72Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Can BH, Ward RS, Schneider NS (1982) A new criterion of phase separation: the effect of diamine chain extenders on the properties of polyurethaneureas. J Appl Polym Sci 27:2167–2177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wingborg N (2002) Increasing the tensile strength of HTPB with different isocyanates and chain extenders. Polym Test 21:283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Park HS, Kwon SY, Seo KJ, Im WB, Wu JP, Kim SK (1999) Preparation and physical properties of polyurethane flame retardant coatings using phosphorus-containing lactone modified polyesters. J Coat Technol 71:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Oprea S, Oprea V (2013) Synthesis and characterization of the cross-linked polyurethane–gum arabic blends obtained by multi acrylates cross-linking polymerization. J Elastom Plast 45:564–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pastor-Blas MM, Sánchez-Adsuar MS, Martín-Martínez JM (1994) Surface modification of synthetic vulcanized rubber. J Adhes Sci Technol 8:1093–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Allauddin S, Narayan R, Raju KVSN (2013) Synthesis and properties of alkoxysilane castor oil and their polyurethane/urea–silica hybrid coating films. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 1:910–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Polymers and Functional Materials DivisionIndian Institute of Chemical TechnologyHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations