Current Microbiology

, Volume 75, Issue 5, pp 550–556 | Cite as

Effects of Phenolic Compounds on Growth of Colletotrichum spp. In Vitro

  • Sutapa Roy
  • Etta Nuckles
  • Douglas D. Archbold


Colletotrichum acutatum is responsible for anthracnose fruit rot, one of the most devastating diseases in strawberry. Phenolic compounds have been described as contributors to anthracnose resistance in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch.). Six isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum and four isolates of three other Colletotrichum species, C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. graminicola, associated with disease symptoms were investigated in this study. The potential inhibitory effect of phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid), flavonoids (catechin, quercetin, naringenin), and ellagic acid, which are naturally found in strawberry, were screened against two different spore suspension concentrations of the Colletotrichum isolates at 5, 10, 50 mM in vitro. Among the phenolic acids and flavonoids tested in this study, only trans-cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid inhibited fungal growth. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent but also varied with the spore suspension concentration of the isolates. The results demonstrated that trans-cinnamic acid had the greatest inhibitory effect on all Colletotrichum spp. isolates tested.



The authors would like to sincerely thank Dr. Lisa Vaillancourt, Department of Plant Pathology University of Kentucky, for providing the Colletotrichum isolates and guidance throughout this study. This is publication No. 17-11-062 of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with the approval of the Director. This project was supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


  1. 1.
    Aaby K, Mazur S, Nes A, Skrede G (2012) Phenolic compounds in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) fruits: composition in 27 cultivars and changes during ripening. Food Chem 132:86–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bailey JA, O’Connel RJ, Pring RJ, Nash C (1992) Infection strategies of Colletotrichum species. In: Bailey JA, Jeger MJ (eds) Colletotrichum: biology, pathology and control. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 88–120Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brady C (1987) Fruit ripening. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 38:155–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buendía B, Gil MI, Tudela JA, Gady A, Medina JJ, Soria C, López JM, Tomás-Barberán F (2010) HPLC-MS analysis of proanthocyanidin oligomers and other phenolics in 15 strawberry cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 58:3916–3926CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castillo F, Hernande D, Gallegos G, Mendez M, Rodriguez R, Reyes A, Aguilar CN (2010) In vitro antifungal activity of plant extracts obtained with alternative organic solvents against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Ind Crops Prod 32:324–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chillet M, Hubert O, de Lapeyre de Bellaire L (2007) Relationship between physiological age, ripening and susceptibility of banana to wound anthracnose. Crop Prot 26:1078–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chipley JR, Uraih N (1980) Inhibition of Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin release by derivatives of benzoic acid. Appl Environ Microbiol 40:352–357PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Curry KJ, Abril M, Avant JB, Smith BJ (2002) Strawberry anthracnose: histopathology of Colletotrichum acutatum and C. fragariae. Phytopathology 92:1055–1063CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Denoyes-Rothan B, Lafargue M, Guerin G, Clerjeau M (1999) Fruit resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum in strawberries. Plant Dis 83:549–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Du M, Schardl CL, Nuckles EM, Vaillancourt LJ (2005) Using mating-type gene sequences for improved phylogenetic resolution of Colletotrichum species complexes. Mycologia 97:641–658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Florianowicz T (1998) Penicillium expansum growth and production of patulin in the presence of benzoic acid and its derivatives. Acta Microbiol Pol 47:45–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gogoi R, Singh DV, Srivastava KD (2001) Phenols as a biochemical basis of resistance in wheat against karnal bunt. Plant Pathol 50:470–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guidarelli M, Carbone F, Mourgues F, Perrotta G, Rosati C, Bertolini P, Baraldi E (2011) Colletotrichum acutatum interactions with unripe and ripe strawberry fruits and differential responses at histological and transcriptional levels. Plant Path 60:685–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Howard CM, Mass JL, Chandler CK, Albregts EE (1992) Anthracnose of strawberry caused by the Colletotrichum complex in Florida. Plant Dis 76:976–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hukkanen AT, Kokko HI, Buchala AJ, McDougall GJ, Stewart D, Karenlampi SO, Karjalainen RO (2007) Benzothiadiazole induces the accumulation of phenolics and improves resistance to powdery mildew in strawberries. J Agric Food Chem 55:1862–1870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jeong SW, Kim HG, Park S, Lee JH, Kim YH, Kim GS, Jin JS, Kwak YS, Huh MR, Lee JE, Song Y, Shin SC (2014) Variation in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort ex Tan infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Food Chem 148:284–288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kelebek H, Selli S (2011) Characterization of phenolic compounds in strawberry fruits by RP-HPLC-DAD and investigation of their antioxidant capacity. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Tech 34:2495–2504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kerr JR, Taylor GW, Rutman A, Hoiby N, Cole PJ, Wilson R (1999) Pyocyanin inhibits yeast growth: a role in the prevention of pulmonary candidiasis. J Clin Pathol 52:385–387CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim JH, Campbell BC, Mahoney NE, Chan KL, Molyneux RJ (2004) Identification of phenolics for control of Aspergillus flavus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a model target-gene bioassay. J Agric Food Chem 52:7814–7821CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kneusel RE, Matern U, Nicolay K (1989) Formation of trans-caffeoyl CoA from trans-4-coumaroyl-CoA by Zn2+-dependent enzymes in cultured plant cells and its activation by an elicitor-induced pH shift. Arch Biochem Biophys 269:455–462CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lattanzio V, Di Venere D, Linsalata V, Bertolini P, Ippolito A, Salerno M (2001) Low temperature metabolism of apple phenolics and quiescence of Phlyctaena vagabonda. J Agric Food Chem 49:5817–5821CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lattanzio V, Lattanzio VMT, Cardinali A (2006) Role of phenolics in the resistance mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens and insects. Phytochem Adv Res 661:23–67Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mansfield JW (2000) Antimicrobial compounds and resistance: the role of phytoalexins and phytoanticipins. In: Slusarenko AJ, Fraser RS, van Loon LC (eds) Mechanisms of resistance to plant diseases. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 325–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matern U, Kneusel RE (1988) Phenolic compounds in plant disease resistance. Phytoparasitica 16:153–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mertely JC, Legard DE (2004) Detection, isolation, and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum spp. from strawberry petioles. Plant Dis 88:407–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mikulic-Petkovsek M, Schmitzer V, Slatnar A, Weber N, Veberic R, Stampar F, Munda A, Koron D (2013) Alteration of the content of primary and secondary metabolites in strawberry fruit by Colletotrichum nympheae infection. J Agric Food Chem 61:5987–5995CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mikulic-Petkovsek M, Stampar F, Veberic R (2009) Accumulation of phenolic compounds in apple in response to infection by the scab pathogen, Venturia inaqualis. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 74:60–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mohapotra NP, Pat SP, Ray RC (2000) In vitro inhibition of Botryodiplodia theobromae (Pat) causing Java black rot in sweet potato by phenoloic compounds. Ann Plant Prot Sci 8:106–109Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moral J, Bouhmid K, Trapero A (2008) Influence of fruit maturity, cultivar susceptibility, and inoculation method on infection of olive fruit by Colletotrichum acutatum. Plant Dis 92:1421–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nagpala EG, Guidarelli M, Gasperotti M, Masuero D, Bertolini P, Vrhovsek U, Baraldi E (2016) Polyphenols variation in fruits of the susceptible strawberry cultivar Alba during ripening and upon fungal pathogen interaction and possible involvement in unripe fruit tolerance. J Agric Food Chem 64:1869–1878CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nesci AV, Etcheverry MG (2006) Control of Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin production using natural maize phytochemicals under different conditions of water activity. Pest Manag Sci 62:775–784CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nicholson RL, Hammerschmidt R (1992) Phenolic compounds and their role in disease resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 30:369–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pakusch A-E, Kneuse RE, Matern U (1989) S-adenosyl-L-methionine: trans-caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-0-methyltransferase from elicitor-treated parsley cell suspension cultures. Arch Biochem Biophys 271:488–494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sacher JA (1973) Senescence and postharvest physiology. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 24:197–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Seijo TE, Chandler CK, Mertely JC, Moyer C, Peres NA (2008) Resistance of strawberry cultivars and advanced selections to anthracnose and Botrytis fruit rots. Proc Fla State Hort Soc 121:246–248Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sekhar Pannala SA, Chan TS, O’Brien PJ, Rice-Evans CA (2001) Flavonoid B-ring chemistry and antioxidant activity: fast reaction kinetics. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 282:1161–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Smith BH (2008) Epidemiology and pathology of strawberry anthracnose: a North American perspective. HortSci 43:69–73Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tegegne. G, Pretorius. JC, Swart. WJ (2008) Antifungal properties of Agapanthus africanus L extracts against plant pathogens. Crop Prot 27:1052–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Treutter D (2006) Significance of flavonoids in plant resistance: a review. Environ Chem Lett 4:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Treutter D, Feucht W, Christ E (1991) Flavan-3-ols and their relation to resistance to fungi in strawberries. Mitt Klosterneuburg 41:79–83Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vincelli P (2002) QoI (Strobilurin) fungicides: benefits and risks the plant health instructor. Updated, 2012
  42. 42.
    Walker JC, Stahmann MA (1955) Chemical nature of disease resistance in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 6:351–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wharton PS, Nicholson RL (2000) Temporal synthesis and radiolabelling of the sorghum 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins and the anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-dimalonyl glucoside. New Phytol 145:457–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wharton PS, Diéguez-Uribeondo J (2004) The biology of Colletotrichum acutatum. Ann Jard Bot Madr 61:3–22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HorticultureUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations