Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) represents the most beneficial treatment for patients with active relapsed/refractory (R/R) hematologic malignancies. Recently, sequential regimens combining debulking chemotherapy followed by reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) have shown encouraging results for these patients. In this retrospective study, we report the extended results of a sequential regimen of clofarabine, cytosine arabinoside, and RIC in 131 adults with active R/R myeloid disease at transplant. Conditioning consisted of clofarabine (30 mg/m2/day) and cytosine arabinoside (1 g/m2/day) for 5 days, followed, after a rest of 3 days, by an RIC combining cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg) for 1 day, iv busulfan (3.2 mg/kg/day) for 2 days, and anti-thymocyte globulin (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 2 days. Between 2007 and 2016, 131 patients (males n = 75, median age: 52.6 years) were identified from the SFGM-TC registry. There were 111 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and 20 cases with myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative syndrome. Status at transplant was known for all but 4 patients and was primary refractory (n = 81) and 1st or 2nd relapse (n = 46). All patients received allo-SCT from a matched donor (sibling n = 64, unrelated n = 67). Engraftment was observed in 105/122 (86%) evaluable cases and 63% of the patients achieved complete remission (CR) after transplant. The 1-year overall survival, disease-free survival, relapse incidence, non-relapse mortality, and graft-versus-host disease-free/relapse-free survival were 39.2%, 28.1%, 41.0%, 30.8%, and 22.2%, respectively. This study confirms that this sequential clofarabine-based regimen provides a high CR rate in this critical population, although relapse remains a matter of concern.
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We wish to thank all investigators and data managers. We thank all staff involved in patient care for their dedication, and we especially thank the patients who took part.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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The study has been approved by the ethics committee of the STGM-TC.
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Le Bourgeois, A., Labopin, M., Marçais, A. et al. Sequential allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for active refractory/relapsed myeloid malignancies: results of a reduced-intensity conditioning preceded by clofarabine and cytosine arabinoside, a retrospective study on behalf of the SFGM-TC. Ann Hematol 99, 1855–1862 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04074-7
- Allogeneic stem cell transplantation
- Sequential regimen
- Reduced intensity conditioning regimen
- Acute myeloid leukemia