Prognosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in critically ill patients
Patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In order to describe the characteristics of AIHA patients in ICU and identify prognosis factors, clinical and biological data from 44 patients admitted in one ICU between 2002 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The main reasons for ICU admission were profound anemia without any organ failure in 19 patients (either for safer transfusion or continuous monitoring only). Twenty-five (57%) patients had a past history of hemopathy. Twenty patients presented with a direct anti-globulin test (DAT) positive for immunoglobulin G (DAT-IgG) only (46%), 8 with a DAT positive for both IgG and complement (DAT-IgG+C) (36%), and 16 with a DAT positive for complement only (DAT-IgG+C) (18%). Corticosteroids and rituximab were administered to respectively 44 (100%) and 12 (25%) patients. Red blood cell transfusion was required in 28 (64%) patients. Ten (23%) patients received vasopressors. Renal replacement therapy was necessary in 14 (31.8%) patients. Thirteen (30%) patients died in the ICU. There was no difference between survivors and non-survivors regarding associated comorbidities like hemopathy (18/31 [58%] vs. 7/13 [54%], p = 0.80). In decedents, age was higher (72 years [57.8–76.3] vs. 50 years [34.3–64], p < 0.01) and organ dysfunctions were more severe at day 1 (SOFA 8 [7–11] vs. 5.5 [3–7], p < 0.01). Patients with a DAT-IgG displayed poorer outcome in comparison with patients with DAT-IgG+C/C (hospital mortality 69% vs. 36%, p = 0.04). Mortality rate of AIHA patients requiring ICU admission is consequential and appears to be impacted by age, organ failures, and DAT-IgG.
KeywordsAutoimmune hemolytic anemia Intensive care unit Hemopathy Direct anti-globulin test Prognosis
Compliance with ethical standards
The study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by our local institutional review board.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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