Annals of Hematology

, Volume 96, Issue 5, pp 839–845 | Cite as

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Yin Key Lai
  • Nai Ming Lai
  • Shaun Wen Huey Lee
Original Article


Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may have a higher risk of developing diabetes. The aim of the review was to synthesise the evidence on the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes. A systematic search on Medline, EMBASE, AMED and CENTRAL databases for studies published between January 1966 and September 2016 that assessed the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes was conducted. This was supplemented by a review of the reference list of retrieved articles. We extracted data on study characteristics, outcomes and performed an assessment on the methodological quality of the studies. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates. Fifteen relevant publications involving 949,260 participants were identified, from which seven studies contributed to the meta-analysis. G6PD deficiency was associated with a higher odd of diabetes (odds ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.50–3.73). The odds ratio of diabetes among men was higher (2.22, 1.31–3.75) compared to women (1.87, 1.12–3.12). This association was broadly consistent in the sensitivity analysis. Current evidence suggests that G6PD deficiency may be a risk factor for diabetes, with higher odds among men compared to women. Further research is needed to determine how G6PD deficiency moderates diabetes.


Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Gender Diabetes Prevalence 



The authors wish to thank Anthony Heymann of the University of Tel Aviv for sharing the information required from his studies.

Author contributions

SWHL, NML and YKL undertook the literature search and reviewed the abstracts and full articles. SWHL conceived the idea, drafted the initial manuscript and performed the statistical analysis. All authors designed the study, contributed to the discussion and critically reviewed the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Source of funding


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary Figure S1 (DOCX 36 kb)
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Supplementary Figure S2 (DOCX 15 kb)
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Supplementary Table S1 (DOCX 157 kb)
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Supplementary Table S2 (DOCX 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yin Key Lai
    • 1
  • Nai Ming Lai
    • 2
  • Shaun Wen Huey Lee
    • 3
  1. 1.School of PharmacyUCSI UniversityKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.School of MedicineTaylor’s UniversitySubang JayaMalaysia
  3. 3.School of PharmacyMonash University MalaysiaBandar SunwayMalaysia

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