Annals of Hematology

, Volume 96, Issue 5, pp 797–803 | Cite as

Nationwide survey of BK polyomavirus associated hemorrhagic cystitis in adult allogeneic stem cell transplantation among haematologists and urologists

  • Laila Schneidewind
  • Thomas Neumann
  • Jennifer Kranz
  • Florian Knoll
  • Alexandre Egon Pelzer
  • Christian Schmidt
  • William Krüger
Original Article


There are no epidemiological data on BK virus associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKHC) in adult allogeneic stem cell transplantation in Germany available and associations with clinical conditions like GvHD are controversially discussed. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide survey among haematologists and urologists about this disease. We developed two questionnaires, one for haematologists (26 items) and one for urologists (20 items) concerning BKHC in adult allogeneic stem cell transplantation with epidemiological data and clinical implications. The survey was sent out at least three times to EBMT registered centres performing at least five transplantations a year, leading to 39 centres. The recruiting time was between January and June 2016. Total response rates were 76.9% among haematologists and 74.4% among urologists. BKHC seems to appear less frequent in this survey than it is described in the literature. Six deaths in the last 5 years due to this disease have been reported. Interestingly, haematologists as well as urologists mostly think that local therapy is most effective while 50.0% stated that there is no real effective oral or intravenous medication. Associations with other clinical conditions mentioned were heterogeneous, e.g. transplantation type, CMV reactivation, acute GvHD, nephropathy and worse clinical outcome. There was a significant discrepancy between haematologists and urologist concerning the association with acute GvHD (p = 0.004). We need prospective, multicentric clinical studies to evaluate local therapy and for developing a risk stratification model since this disease can be severe with morbidity and rarely mortality. In our opinion, this should be an interdisciplinary approach.


BK polyomavirus BK virus associated hemorrhagic cystitis Adult allogeneic stem cell transplantation Nephropathy Graft versus host disease 



The authors would like to thank all participating centres for the completion of the survey and the valuable discussions.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (5). For this kind of study, formal consent is not required. Participation in this survey was voluntary.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laila Schneidewind
    • 1
  • Thomas Neumann
    • 2
  • Jennifer Kranz
    • 3
  • Florian Knoll
    • 2
  • Alexandre Egon Pelzer
    • 4
  • Christian Schmidt
    • 2
  • William Krüger
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of VirologyUniversity Medical Center of the Saarland, Saarland UniversityHomburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Haematology/OncologyUniversity Medicine GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  3. 3.Department of Urology and Paediatric UrologySt. Antonius HospitalEschweilerGermany
  4. 4.Department of UrologyHospital Wels-GrieskirchenWelsAustria

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