Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 257–262 | Cite as

Control of the glottal configuration in ex vivo human models: quantitative anatomy for clinical and experimental practices

  • Aude Lagier
  • Daphné Guenoun
  • Thierry Legou
  • Robert Espesser
  • Antoine Giovanni
  • Pierre Champsaur
Original Article
  • 89 Downloads

Abstract

Introduction

The objective of this paper was to identify the determining factors of the glottal prephonatory configuration from the point of view of the resulting muscular actions (i.e., arytenoids adduction, membranous vocal fold adduction, and tension).

Materials and methods

21 human non-embalmed excised larynges (12 females and 9 males) were studied. Experiment A (11 larynges) studied four conditions of adduction of the vocal folds and arytenoids. Experiment B (10 larynges) studied the effect of cricothyroid approximation on the vocal fold length and the cricothyroid angle.

Results

Experiment A: The mean glottal area significantly decreased from 41.2 mm2 mean with no adduction, to 10.2 mm2 mean with arytenoid adduction, to 9.2 mm2 with membranous vocal fold adduction, and down to 1.1 mm2 with the combination of arytenoid and membranous adduction. The effect of the task was statistically significant. Experiment B: The length of vocal folds increased from 13.61 mm median to 14.48 mm median, and the cricothyroid angle decreased of 10.05 median along with cricothyroid approximation.

Discussion

The results of experiment A emphasize the sub-division of adductor intrinsic muscles in arytenoids adductors (i.e., LCA and IA), and membranous vocal fold adductor (i.e., TA). The results of experiment B quantify the effect of cricothyroid approximation on the vocal folds length. The implications of these results can be useful in both clinical practice and experimental studies.

Keywords

Larynx Glottis Vocal folds adduction Phonation control Voice 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest of any kind.

References

  1. 1.
    Alipour F, Finnegan EM, Jaiswal S (2013) Phonatory characteristics of the excised human larynx in comparison to other species. J Voice 27:441–447CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alipour F, Scherer RC (2007) On pressure–frequency relations in the excised larynx. J Acoust Soc Am 122:2296–2305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J Stat Soft 67(1):1–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berry DA, Montequin DW, Chan RW, Titze IR, Hoffman HT (2003) An investigation of cricoarytenoid joint mechanics using simulated muscle forces. J Voice 17:47–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deguchi S, Kawahara Y, Takahashi S (2011) Cooperative regulation of vocal fold morphology and stress by the cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscles. J Voice 25:e255–e263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Freeman E, Woo P, Saxman JH, Murry T (2012) A comparison of sung and spoken phonation onset gestures using high-speed digital imaging. J Voice 26:226–238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Halekoh U, Højsgaard S (2014) A Kenward–Roger approximation and parametric bootstrap methods for tests in linear mixed models—the R package pbkrtest. J Stat Softw 59:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hirano M (1974) Morphological structure of the vocal cord as a vibrator and its variations. Folia Phoniatr (Basel) 26:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hirano M, Ohala J (1969) Use of hooked-wire electrodes for electromyography of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. J Speech Hear Res 12:362–373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoffman MR, Witt RE, Chapin WJ, McCulloch TM, Jiang JJ (2010) Multiparameter comparison of injection laryngoplasty, medialization laryngoplasty, and arytenoid adduction in an excised larynx model. Laryngoscope 120:769–776CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Isshiki N (1998) Vocal mechanics as the basis for phonosurgery. Laryngoscope 108:1761–1766CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Isshiki N, Morita H, Okamura H, Hiramoto M (1974) Thyroplasty as a new phonosurgical technique. Acta Otolaryngol 78:451–457CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jiang J, Lin E, Hanson DG (2000) Vocal fold physiology. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 33:699–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lowell SY, Story BH (2006) Simulated effects of cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscle activation on adult-male vocal fold vibration. J Acoust Soc Am 120:386–397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Montgomery WW, Montgomery SK (1997) Montgomery thyroplasty implant system. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 170:1–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Poletto CJ, Verdun LP, Strominger R, Ludlow CL (2004) Correspondence between laryngeal vocal fold movement and muscle activity during speech and nonspeech gestures. J Appl Physiol (1985) 97:858–866CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prades JM, Dumollard JM, Timoshenko AP, Durand M, Martin C (2000) Descriptive anatomy of the cricoarytenoid articulation: application to articular dynamics in carcinology. Surg Radiol Anat 22:277–282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 19 May 2015
  19. 19.
    Titze IR, Jiang JJ, Lin E (1997) The dynamics of length change in canine vocal folds. J Voice 11:267–276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Titze IR, Luschei ES, Hirano M (1989) Role of the thyroarytenoid muscle in regulation of fundamental frequency. J Voice 3:213–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zeitels SM, Mauri M, Dailey SH (2004) Adduction arytenopexy for vocal fold paralysis: indications and technique. J Laryngol Otol 118:508–516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aude Lagier
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Daphné Guenoun
    • 1
  • Thierry Legou
    • 2
  • Robert Espesser
    • 2
  • Antoine Giovanni
    • 2
    • 3
  • Pierre Champsaur
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Anatomie, Faculté de médecine de MarseilleAix-Marseille UniversitéMarseille Cedex 05France
  2. 2.Laboratoire Parole et LangageUMR CNRS-Aix-Marseille UniversitéAix-en-ProvenceFrance
  3. 3.Service d’ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-FacialeCHU La Conception, AP-HMMarseilleFrance

Personalised recommendations