Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 315–321 | Cite as

Visualization of the olfactory nerve using constructive interference in steady state magnetic resonance imaging

  • Satoshi Tsutsumi
  • Hideo Ono
  • Yukimasa Yasumoto
Original Article



The olfactory nerve (OlfN) is a small neural structure with inconsistent visualization on neuroimages. The aim of this study was to delineate the intracranial course of the OlfN using constructive interference in steady state magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.


A total of 168 patients were enrolled in this study. Following initial examinations with conventional MR sequences, constructive interference in steady-state sequence (CISS) was performed in coronal and axial sections.


On coronal sections, the OlfN was entirely visualized in 90 % of patients on the right and 92 % on the left, coursing along the olfactory sulcus. Complete visualization of the OlfN occurred in 100 % of patients on serial axial images. The OlfN was classified into four portions based on the topographical differences and surrounding structures. The olfactory fossa exhibited considerable variability at the midlevel of the olfactory bulb on coronal images. Characteristic appearance of the OlfN with respect to age range or gender was not observed.


The OlfN follows a highly consistent course along the olfactory sulcus. Thin-sliced, CISS sequences are useful for consistent visualization of the OlfN.


Olfactory nerve Olfactory fossa Olfactory sulcus CISS sequence 



This work was not supported by grant funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings presented in this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satoshi Tsutsumi
    • 1
  • Hideo Ono
    • 2
  • Yukimasa Yasumoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryJuntendo University Urayasu HospitalUrayasuJapan
  2. 2.Division of Radiological TechnologyMedical Satellite Yaesu ClinicTokyoJapan

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