Advertisement

Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 271–279 | Cite as

Anatomic study of the musculus longus capitis flap

  • Xiang–yu Zhang
  • Ting–ting Ma
  • Lei Liu
  • Ning–bei Yin
  • Zhen–min Zhao
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

To clearly delineate the anatomy of the musculus longus capitis, determine its clinical applications for reconstruction surgery, and provide a safer surgical method of developing the longus capitis muscle flap.

Methods

Anatomical investigations were performed in seven adult cadavers (five cadavers for gross anatomy and two for transparent specimen preparation) with respect to the location, morphology, arterial supply, and innervation of the musculus longus capitis, as well as its spatial relationship with the cervical sympathetic trunk, superior cervical ganglion, carotid sheath, and other surrounding structures.

Results

The musculus longus capitis is located anterior to the C1–6 vertebrae, segmentally supplied by branches of the ascending cervical artery, innervated by the C1–5 nerve, and spatially close to the cervical sympathetic trunk, superior cervical ganglion, and carotid sheath. These anatomic findings indicate that the development of a cranial or caudal pedicled longus capitis muscle flap is feasible.

Conclusion

The musculus longus capitis can be developed into a cranial or caudal pedicled flap for repair of head and neck defects with negligible morbidity of the donor site.

Keywords

Anatomy Musculus longus capitis Flap Neck Soft tissues 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Professor Yi-ping Yan from the Department of Anatomy, and Professor Min Zhao from the Department of Cleft Lip and Palate, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, for the help in cadavers dissection and transparent specimen preparation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    An X, Yue B, Lee JH, Lin C, Han SH (2012) Arterial anatomy of the gracilis muscle as determined by latex injection and glycerin transparency. Clin Anat 25:231–234. doi: 10.1002/ca.21217 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Civelek E, Karasu A, Cansever T, Hepgul K, Kiris T, Sabanci A, Canbolat A (2008) Surgical anatomy of the cervical sympathetic trunk during anterolateral approach to cervical spine. Eur Spine J 17:991–995. doi: 10.1007/s00586-008-0696-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Giannikas C, Pomeranz HD, Smith LP, Fefer Z (2014) Horner syndrome after tonsillectomy: an anatomic perspective. Pediatr Neurol 51:417–420. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.05.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lu J, Ebraheim NA (1999) The vertebral artery: surgical anatomy. Orthopedics 22:1081–1085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miller A, Woodley SJ, Cornwall J (2015) Fibre type composition of female longus capitis and longus colli muscles. Anat Sci Int. doi: 10.1007/s12565-015-0280-3 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Peng CW, Chou BT, Bendo JA, Spivak JM (2009) Vertebral artery injury in cervical spine surgery: anatomical considerations, management, and preventive measures. Spine J 9:70–76. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2008.03.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sader R, Zeilhofer HF, Putz R, Horch HH (2001) Levatorplasty, a new technique to treat hypernasality: anatomical investigations and preliminary clinical results. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 29:143–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shen FH, Samartzis D, Khanna N, Goldberg EJ, An HS (2004) Comparison of clinical and radiographic outcome in instrumented anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with or without direct uncovertebral joint decompression. Spine J 4:629–635. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2004.04.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tubbs RS, Salter EG, Oakes WJ (2005) Anatomic landmarks for nerves of the neck: a vade mecum for neurosurgeons. Neurosurgery 56(256–260):256–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yamawaki Y, Nishimura Y, Suzuki Y (1996) Velopharyngeal closure and the longus capitis muscle. Acta Otolaryngol 116:774–777CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yan J, Ogino K, Hitomi J (2009) The terminal insertional segments and communications of the vertebral nerve in the human cervical region. Surg Radiol Anat 31:165–171. doi: 10.1007/s00276-008-0421-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cleft Lip and Palate, Plastic Surgery HospitalChinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu HospitalShandong UniversityJinanChina

Personalised recommendations