Prognostic Factors in Overall Survival of Patients with Unresectable Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Treated by Means of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization: Results in Therapy-Naïve Patients

  • P. Reimer
  • M. K. Virarkar
  • M. Binnenhei
  • M. Justinger
  • M. R. Schön
  • K. Tatsch
Clinical Investigation



To investigate prognostic factors in unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) therapy-naïve patients after yttrium-90 (Y-90) radioembolization (RE) therapy.

Materials and Methods

Between 2005 and 2016, 21 patients with ICC were treated with Y-90 RE only and their survival data were analyzed. Patients were stratified and response was assessed by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria.


The overall median survival was 15 months. Survival was significantly (p = 0.009) prolonged in patients with tumor burden of ≤ 25% (n = 8, OS 37.5 months) versus those with a tumor burden of 25–50% (n = 13, OS 15 months). The other variables: tumor morphology (infiltrative vs. peripheral), tumor distribution (solitary vs. multifocal), lobes involved (unilobar vs. bilobar), FDG PET status (FDG avid vs. non-avid), RE treatment sessions (1 session vs. 2 sessions), metastases (metastasis vs. no metastasis) and RECIST criteria, had no significant impact on survival.


Tumor burden represents a key prognostic factor of survival in therapy-naïve patients with unresectable ICC treated with Y-90 RE therapy only.


Overall survival Yttrium-90 radioembolization Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma Tumor burden 



We are indebted to Dr. D. H. Wollschlaeger and Dr. F. Barakat for their helpful comments in data acquisition.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional RadiologyKlinikum Karlsruhe, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of FreiburgKarlsruheGermany
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyM D Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Medical Clinic III, Department of Hematology, Oncology, Infectious Disease and Palliative MedicineKlinikum Karlsruhe, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of FreiburgKarlsruheGermany
  4. 4.Department of General and Visceral SurgeryKlinikum Karlsruhe, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of FreiburgKarlsruheGermany
  5. 5.Department of Nuclear MedicineKlinikum Karlsruhe, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of FreiburgKarlsruheGermany

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