Raman spectroscopic study of synthetic pyrope–grossular garnets: structural implications
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A study of the effect of substitution of Mg and Ca in garnet solid solution (Grtss) was carried out using Raman spectroscopy to probe changes to the crystal lattice. The garnet solid solutions with composition changing along pyrope (Py; Mg3Al2Si3O12) and grossular (Gr; Ca3Al2Si3O12) binary were synthesized from glass at 6 GPa and 1400 °C and a second series of Grtss with composition Py40Gr60 were synthesized at 6 GPa but different temperatures from 1000 to 1400 °C. Raman mode assignments were made based on a comparison with the two end members pyrope and grossular, which show consistent result with literature study on single crystals data. The correlation between the Raman mode frequencies and compositional changes along the pyrope–grossular binary suggests a two-mode behavior for Mg and Ca cations in the garnet structure. The full widths at half-maximum of selected Raman modes increase on moving away from the end members and are about double the end-member values in the mid-position, where the frequencies closely linearly change with composition. The frequencies of the translational modes of the SiO4 tetrahedron (T(SiO4)) show large deviations from linearity indicating a strong kinematic coupling with the translational modes of the Ca and Mg cations. The anomalies in T(SiO4) are linked to mixing unit cell volume, suggesting that the nonlinear mixing volume behavior along the pyrope–grossular binary is related to the resistance of the Si–O bond to expansion and compression, which is caused by substitution of Mg and Ca cations in the dodecahedral sites. Annealing temperature also shows effect on Raman mode frequencies, but the main factor controlling the changes in mode frequencies along pyrope–grossular binary is composition.
KeywordsPyrope–grossular garnet solid solution Raman spectroscopy FWHM Non-ideal mixing Short-range ordering
We thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on our manuscript and Dr. Larissa Dobrzhinetskaya for processing this paper. The authors thank Hongrui Ding from School of Earth and Space Sciences in Peking University for help with Raman Spectroscopy measurements. This work was supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB18000000), and by the DREAM project of MOST, China (Grant No. 2016YFC0600408) to Xi Liu.
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