Backward Planning a Craniomaxillofacial Trauma Curriculum for the Surgical Workforce in Low-Resource Settings
- 109 Downloads
Trauma is a significant contributor to global disease, and low-income countries disproportionately shoulder this burden. Education and training are critical components in the effort to address the surgical workforce shortage. Educators can tailor training to a diverse background of health professionals in low-resource settings using competency-based curricula. We present a process for the development of a competency-based curriculum for low-resource settings in the context of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) trauma education.
CMF trauma surgeons representing 7 low-, middle-, and high-income countries conducted a standardized educational curriculum development program. Patient problems related to facial injuries were identified and ranked from highest to lowest morbidity. Higher morbidity problems were categorized into 4 modules with agreed upon competencies. Methods of delivery (lectures, case discussions, and practical exercises) were selected to optimize learning of each competency.
A facial injuries educational curriculum (1.5 days event) was tailored to health professionals with diverse training backgrounds who care for CMF trauma patients in low-resource settings. A backward planned, competency-based curriculum was organized into four modules titled: acute (emergent), eye (periorbital injuries and sight preserving measures), mouth (dental injuries and fracture care), and soft tissue injury treatments. Four courses have been completed with pre- and post-course assessments completed.
Surgeons and educators from a diverse geographic background found the backward planning curriculum development method effective in creating a competency-based facial injuries (trauma) course for health professionals in low-resource settings, where contextual aspects of shortages of surgical capacity, equipment, and emergency transportation must be considered.
Special thanks to the AO Alliance Foundation and AO Foundation, including Michael Cunningham, PhD, Chitra Subramanian, PhD and Diana Greiner.
- 1.Injuries and violence: the facts. Geneva, World Health Organization (2010). www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/key_facts/en/. Accessed by web 14 Sept 2017
- 2.Debas HT, Gosselin RA, McCord C, Thind A (2006) Surgery. In: Jamison D, Evans D, Alleyne G, Jha P, Breman J, Measham A et al (eds) Disease control priorities in developing countries, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 3.Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL (eds) (2006) Global burden of disease and risk factors. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 6.Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development (2015). https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld. Accessed 17 Sept 2017
- 11.Frenk J, Chen L, Bhutta ZA, Cohen J, Crisp N, Evans T, Fineberg H, Garcia P, Ke Y, Kelley P, Kistnasamy B, Meleis A, Naylor D, Pablos-Mendez A, Reddy S, Scrimshaw S, Sepulveda J, Serwadda D, Zurayk H (2010) Health professionals for a new century: transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. The Lancet 376:1923–1958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Mock C, Lormand JD, Goosen J et al (2004) Guidelines for essential trauma care. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 18.Lin Y, Scott JW, Yi S et al (2017) Improving surgical safety and nontechnical skills in variable-resource contexts: a novel educational curriculum. Ann Surg 51:229–249Google Scholar
- 20.Greenberg C, Regenbogen S, Studdert D et al (2007) Patterns of communication breakdowns resulting in injury to surgical patients. J Am CollSurg 204(4):533–540Google Scholar
- 25.The World Bank (2018) https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups. Accessed by web 18 Jan 2018