Environmental Management

, Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 171–180 | Cite as

Toxicological Assessment and UV/TiO2-Based Induced Degradation Profile of Reactive Black 5 Dye

  • Muhammad Bilal
  • Tahir Rasheed
  • Hafiz M. N. Iqbal
  • Hongbo Hu
  • Wei Wang
  • Xuehong Zhang


In this study, the toxicological and degradation profile of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye was evaluated using a UV/TiO2-based degradation system. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thin layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) techniques were used to evaluate the degradation level of RB5. The UV-Vis spectral analysis revealed the disappearance of peak intensity at 599 nm (λmax). The FT-IR spectrum of UV/TiO2 treated dye sample manifest appearance of new peaks mainly because of the degraded product and/or disappearance of some characteristics peaks which were present in the untreated spectrum. The HPLC profile verified the RB5 degradation subject to the formation of metabolites at different retention times. A stable color removal higher than 96% with COD removal in the range of 74–82.3% was noted at all evaluated dye concentrations. The tentative degradation pathway of RB5 is proposed following a careful analysis of the intermediates identified by UPLC-MS. Toxicity profile of untreated and degraded dye samples was monitored using three types of human cell lines via MTT assay and acute toxicity testing with Artemia salina. In conclusion, the UV/TiO2-based degradation system could be effectively employed for the remediation of textile wastewater comprising a high concentration of reactive dyes.


Photocatalysis Reactive Black 5 Degradation by-product Toxicity MTT assay 



The authors are grateful to State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology and The School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China for providing experimental facilities. The technical and analytical assistance provided by Center of Life-Science Experiments, Instrumental Analysis Center of SJTU is also thankfully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Bilal
    • 1
  • Tahir Rasheed
    • 2
  • Hafiz M. N. Iqbal
    • 3
  • Hongbo Hu
    • 1
    • 4
  • Wei Wang
    • 1
  • Xuehong Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.The School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus MonterreyMonterreyMexico
  4. 4.National Experimental Teaching Center for Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

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