Table 2 Results of the linear mixed-effects model on the relationship between bib size and aspects of individual phenotype. For the main effect of the fixed factor “sex”, males are included in the intercept, and therefore, the reported estimates show the extent to which females differ from males. The sign of estimates indicates the direction of associations. Significance levels indicate results from likelihood ratio tests (ANOVA, type II). Significant effects (P ≤ 0.050) are highlighted in bold. SMI – scaled mass index (body condition), total WBC – total number of leukocytes, H/L ratio – ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes

From: Sex-specific signalling of individual personality by a mutual plumage ornament in a passerine

  Full model Minimum adequate model
Predictors Estimate SE t χ2 df P Estimate SE t χ2 df P
Intercept 0.451 0.206 2.190     0.438 0.193 2.273    
Sex (female) − 0.520 0.166 − 3.138 8.372 1 0.004 − 0.545 0.157 − 3.470 11.765 1 0.001
Body size 0.069 0.119 0.580 1.667 1 0.197       
SMI 0.005 0.138 0.034 0.246 1 0.620       
Activity − 0.290 0.133 − 2.185 0.401 1 0.527 − 0.268 0.135 − 1.988 0.396 1 0.529
Total WBC − 0.237 0.121 − 1.958 2.950 1 0.086       
H/L ratio 0.024 0.127 0.185 3.776 1 0.052 0.157 0.075 2.086 4.351 1 0.037
Sex (female):body size 0.055 0.156 0.351 0.124 1 0.725       
Sex (female):SMI 0.045 0.165 0.275 0.076 1 0.783       
Sex (female):activity 0.482 0.159 3.023 9.138 1 0.003 0.451 0.161 2.791 7.792 1 0.005
Sex (female):total WBC 0.176 0.161 1.098 1.206 1 0.272       
Sex (female):H/L ratio 0.188 0.157 1.198 1.434 1 0.231       
Random effects
Residual variance 0.74       0.78      
Season 0.09       0.08      
Nseason 4       4      
Observations 146       146