Table 1 Results of the linear mixed-effects model on the relationship between individual activity and predictors. For the main effect of the fixed factor “sex”, males are included in the intercept, and therefore, the reported estimates show the extent to which females differ from males. The sign of estimates indicates the direction of associations. Significance levels indicate results from likelihood ratio tests (ANOVA, type II). Significant effects (P ≤ 0.050) are highlighted in bold. SMI – scaled mass index (body condition)

From: Sex-specific signalling of individual personality by a mutual plumage ornament in a passerine

  Full model Minimum adequate model
Predictors Estimate SE t χ2 df P Estimate SE t χ2 df P
Intercept 0.349 0.269 1.300     0.334 0.256 1.308    
Sex (female) − 0.353 0.142 − 2.487 4.802 1 0.028 − 0.344 0.139 − 2.472 5.455 1 0.020
SMI − 0.290 0.107 − 2.718 0.761 1 0.383 − 0.262 0.106 − 2.480 1.157 1 0.282
Test date − 0.024 0.113 − 0.212 2.353 1 0.125       
Test time within day − 0.254 0.123 − 2.062 7.698 1 0.006 − 0.145 0.062 − 2.324 5.402 1 0.020
Handling time 0.003 0.131 0.023 0.666 1 0.414       
Sex (female):SMI 0.370 0.135 2.746 7.541 1 0.006 0.303 0.132 2.295 5.265 1 0.022
Sex (female):test date 0.169 0.134 1.263 1.595 1 0.207       
Sex (female):test time within day 0.085 0.143 0.594 0.353 1 0.552       
Sex (female):handling time 0.079 0.152 0.519 0.269 1 0.604       
Random effects
Residual variance 0.33       0.41      
Individual ID 0.37       0.31      
Season 0.23       0.21      
Nindividual ID 167       167      
Nseason 4       4      
Observations 192       192