Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 836–844 | Cite as

Early response evaluation of neoadjuvant therapy with PET/MRI to predict resectability in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction

  • Mohamed BelmouhandEmail author
  • Johan Löfgren
  • Helle Hjorth Johannesen
  • Lene Baeksgaard
  • Henrik Gutte
  • Kiran Tariq
  • Michael Patrick Achiam
Hollow Organ GI


Study design and purpose

Positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new modality that has showed promising results for various clinical indications. Currently, evaluation of neoadjuvant therapy (NT) among patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction has primarily been reserved for PET/computed tomography. Our aim was to evaluate if early response evaluation by PET/MRI is a feasible method to predict resectability.

Methods and materials

Patients with untreated adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (Siewert types I/II) and fit for NT with no contraindications for PET/MRI were considered eligible. A baseline scan was performed prior to NT induction and an evaluation scan 3 weeks later. For histopathological response evaluation, the Mandard tumor regression grade score was applied. Response on PET/MRI was evaluated with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1), and change in ADC and SUVmax values.


Twenty-eight patients were enrolled, and 22 completed both scans and proceeded to final analyses. Seventeen patients were found resectable versus five who were found unresectable. PET/MRI response evaluation had a sensitivity 94%, specificity 80%, and AUC = 0.95 when predicting resectability in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. No association with histopathological response (tumor regression grade) was found nor was RECIST correlated with resectability.


Response evaluation using PET/MRI was a feasible method to predict resectability in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction in this pilot study. However, larger studies are warranted to justify the use of the modality for this indication.


Positron emission tomography Magnetic resonance imaging Gastroesophageal junction cancer Chemotherapy Resectability Response evaluation 



We acknowledge the grant support from The Danish Cancer Society. We would also like to recognize the statistical support from The Data Science Laboratory, Department of Mathematical Science and the Department for Computer Science, University of Copenhagen.


This study was funded by the Danish Cancer Society (Kræftens Bekæmpelse), No. R136-A8486-15-S7.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, RigshospitaletUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, RigshospitaletUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Oncology, RigshospitaletUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, RigshospitaletUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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