Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 201–208 | Cite as

Computed tomography-based texture analysis of bladder cancer: differentiating urothelial carcinoma from micropapillary carcinoma

  • Ting-wei FanEmail author
  • Harshawn Malhi
  • Bino Varghese
  • Steve Cen
  • Darryl Hwang
  • Manju Aron
  • Nieroshan Rajarubendra
  • Mihir Desai
  • Vinay Duddalwar



The purpose of the study is to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography-based texture analysis (CTTA) in differentiating between urothelial carcinomas (UC) of the bladder from micropapillary carcinomas (MPC) of the bladder.


Regions of interests (ROIs) of computerized tomography (CT) images of 33 MPCs and 33 UCs were manually segmented and saved. Custom MATLAB code was used to extract voxel information corresponding to the ROI. The segmented tumors were input to a pre-existing radiomics platform with a CTTA panel. A total of 58 texture metrics were extracted using four different texture extraction techniques and statistically analyzed using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test to determine the differences between UCs and MPCs.


Of the 58 texture metrics extracted using the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and gray level difference matrix (GLDM), 28 texture metrics were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for differences in tumor textures and 27 texture metrics were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for peritumoral fat textures. The remaining nine metrics extracted using histogram and fast Fourier transform analyses did not show significant differences between the textures of the tumors and their peritumoral fat.


CTTA shows that MPC have a more heterogeneous texture compared to UC. As visual discrimination of MPC from UC from clinical CT scans are difficult, results from this study suggest that tumor heterogeneity extracted using GLCM and GLDM may be a good imaging aid in segregating MPC from UC. This tool can aid clinicians in further sub-classifying bladder cancers on routine imaging, a process which has potential to alter treatment and patient care.


Micropapillary carcinoma Urothelial carcinoma Texture analysis Radiomics Bladder cancer 



This research was supported by the Radiological Society of North America Medical Student Grant. We would like to acknowledge Fujifilm and all the personnel at the radiomics laboratory at the University of Southern California for their help with this project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study has been approved by the appropriate institutional review boards and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


RSNA Medical Student Grant (No. RMS172).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Keck School of Medicine of USCLos AngelesUSA

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