Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 43, Issue 11, pp 3025–3034 | Cite as

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: review of heterogeneous spectrum of CT appearance

  • Nam Ju LeeEmail author
  • Ralph H. Hruban
  • Elliot K. Fishman
Pictorial essay



Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are uncommon pancreatic neoplasms and can be a diagnostic challenge with heterogeneous spectrum of CT appearance. We review CT findings of PanNETs and other mimics.


PanNETs are typically hypervascular and have avid enhancement on arterial and venous phase images. However, dedicated pancreas protocol may be needed due to their sometimes atypical appearance including transient enhancement. Careful evaluation of CT findings will help differentiate PanNETs from their mimics, and can be used to establish the diagnosis of a PanNETs. Although an accurate diagnosis can be based on serological, urine, and CT scan findings, confirmation is made via pathological examination.


CT Neoplasm Tumor Pancreas Neuroendocrine neoplasms Neuroendocrine tumors 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Nam Ju Lee, MD, MMs; Ralph H. Hruban, MD; and Elliot K. Fishman MD declare that they have no relevant conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. No IRB approval was required.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nam Ju Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ralph H. Hruban
    • 2
  • Elliot K. Fishman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiology and Radiological ScienceJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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