Table 1 Summary of the published dynamic PET studies in oncology applying kinetic modeling and/or parametric imaging

From: Kinetic modeling and parametric imaging with dynamic PET for oncological applications: general considerations, current clinical applications, and future perspectives

Tracer No. of papers No. of patients Tumor type Model Goal
11C-acetate 3 6–22 PC, HCC 3-Tissue, Patlak Kinetics, model comparison
11C-choline 2 19–194 PC 2-Tissue, 3-tissue, Patlak Kinetics, comparison tumor to hyperplasia
11C-erlotinib, 15O-H2O 1 10 NSCLC 3-Tissue, 2-tissue Kinetics, comparison of tracers, therapy response
15O-H2O 5 6–23 Different tumors 2-Tissue, modified 2-tissue, parametric imaging Kinetics, comparison of tracers, therapy response
15O-H2O and 18F-FDG 3 16–35 Different tumors 2-Tissue, 3-tissue, Patlak Kinetics, comparison of tracers, therapy response
11C-methylglucose and 18F-FDG 2 7–40 Brain 3-Tissue Kinetics, tracer comparison
11C-methionine 1 14 Brain 3-Tissue Kinetics
11C-thymidine 1 20 Brain 5-Tissue Kinetics, comparison with clinical and pathological data
11C-tyrosine 1 11 Brain 5-Tissue Kinetics
18F-choline 2 10–14 PC, different tumors 2-Tissue, 3-tissue, modified nonlinear compartment Kinetics, comparison with multiparametric MRI
18F-DCFPyL 1 3 PC 3-Tissue Kinetics
18F-FDOPA 2 9–37 Pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma, brain 2-Tissue, 3-tissue, Patlak Kinetics, model comparison, correlation to grading, differential diagnosis
18F-FAZA 3 9–20 Pancreas, NSCLC 3-Tissue, Patlak, spectral analysis, parametric images Kinetics, model comparison
18F-FDG 41 up to 117 with full dynamic Different tumors 3-Tissue, Patlak, fractal, PCA, parametric imaging Kinetics, model comparison, diagnosis, therapy response, correlation to grading, correlation to gene expression data
18F-FDG 1 217 with a short protocol Breast First-pass Mullani model, texture analysis Perfusion based part of FDG, correlation to heterogeneity, receptor expression
18F-FLT 12 8–39 Breast, colorectal, brain, head and neck, lung, other 3-Tissue Kinetics, model comparison, therapy response, comparison to proliferation
18F-NaF 1 80 MM 3-Tissue, fractal Kinetics, diagnosis
18F-FDG and 18F-FLT 2 8–15 MM, brain 3-Tissue, fractal Kinetics, tracer comparison, diagnosis,
18F-FDG and 18F-NaF 2 34–60 MM 3-Tissue, fractal Kinetics, tracer comparison, therapy response
18F-FDG and 15O-H2O and 18F-EF5 1 22 Head and neck 2-Tissue Kinetics, correlation of hypoxia to clinical outcome
18F-DOPA and 18F-FDG and 15O-H2O 1 11 Melanoma 2-Tissue, 3-tissue Kinetics, tracer comparison, diagnosis
18F-DOPA and 18F-FLT 1 21 Brain 3-Tissue, factor analysis Kinetics, model comparison, therapy response evaluation
18F-DOPA and 18F-FET 1 16 Brain 3-Tissue Kinetics, tracer comparison, comparison with grading
18F-FET 4 7–16 Brain 2-Tissue, 3-tissue, Patlak, spectral analysis Kinetics, model comparison, comparison with clinical outcome
18F-fluciclovine and 11C-methionine 2 6–27 Brain 2-Tissue, 3-tissue Kinetics, tracer comparison
18F-fluorocholine 1 8 PC 2-Tissue, 3-tissue Kinetics, model comparison
18F-FDHT and 15O-H2O 1 71 PC Patlak Kinetics, tracer comparison
18F-fluoroglutamine 1 41 Different tumors 3-Tissue Kinetics
18F-FMAU 1 10 Brain, PC 3-Tissue Kinetics, model comparison
18F-FMISO 9 6–120 NSCLC, head and neck 2-Tissue, 3-tissue, 4-tissue Kinetics, model comparison, therapy response, comparison to CT and MRI
18F-FMISO and 15O-H2O 1 11 Brain 2-Tissue, 3-tissue Kinetics, model comparison, tracer comparison
18F-FMISO and 18F-FDG 1 13 NSCLC 3-Tissue, fractal Kinetics, model comparison, tracer comparison
18F-galacto-RGD 1 19 Different tumors 3-Tissue Kinetics
18F-HX4 1 8 NSCLC 3-Tissue Kinetics
68Ga-bombesin 1 7 Brain 3-Tissue, fractal Kinetics, comparison with gene data
68Ga-bombesin & 18F-FDG 2 15–17 GIST, brain 3-Tissue, fractal Kinetics, tracer comparison, diagnosis
68Ga-DOTATOC 2 21–22 NET, meningioma 3-Tissue, fractal Kinetics, tracer comparison, diagnosis
68Ga-DOTATOC and 18F-FDG 2 9–15 NET, NSCLC 3-Tissue, fractal Kinetics, tracer comparison, diagnosis
68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE 1 10 NET 3-Tissue, Patlal Kinetics, model comparison
68Ga-PSMA-11 and 18F-PSMA-1007 5 16–140 PC 3-Tissue, fractal Kinetics, diagnosis
89Zr-DFO-MSTP2109A 1 7 PC   Kinetics
15C-O2 1 37 intraabdominal tumors 2-Tissue Kinetics
18F-fluorophenylalanine 2 18–33 Brain 2-Tissue, 3-tissue, Patlak Kinetics, model comparison, correlation to grading
18F-FU 1 8 Colorectal 5-Tissue Kinetics, model comparison
82Rb 1 10 Brain 2-Tissue Kinetics
  1. PC prostate cancer, HCC hepatocellular cancer, NSCLC nonsmall-cell lung cancer, MM multiple myeloma, GIST gastrointestinal stromal tumor, NET neuroendocrine tumors, 11C carbon-11, 18F fluorine-18, 15O oxygen-15, 68Ga gallium-68, 15C carbon-15, 82Rb rubidium-82, 18F-FDG 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, 18F-DCFPyL 2-(3-{1-carboxy-5-[(6-18F-fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl}-ureido)-pentanedioic acid, 18F-DOPA 6-[18F]-L-fluoro-L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 18F-FAZA 1-(5-fluoro-5-deoxy-alpha-D-arabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole, 18F-FLT 18F-fluorothymidine, 18F-NaF 18F-sodium fluoride, 18F-EF5 2-(2-nitro-(1)H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)-acetamide (EF5), 18F-FET 18F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine, 18F-FDHT 18F-fluorodihydrotestosterone, 18F-FMAU (1-(2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)thymine), 18F-FMISO 18F-fluoromisonidazole, 18F-galacto-RGD 18F-galacto-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid, 18F-HX4 (3-[18F]fluoro-2-{4-[(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl} propan-1-ol), 68Ga-DOTATOC 68Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide, 68Ga-DOTATATE 68Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate, 68Ga-PSMA-11 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen-HBED-CC, 18F-PSMA-1007 18F-prostate-specific membrane antigen-1007, 89Zr-DFO-MSTP2109A zirconium-89 desferrioxamine-MSTP2109A, 18F-FU 18F-fluoro-5-fluorouracil