Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 102, Issue 11, pp 4703–4716 | Cite as

Bioproduction of 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus through the solid-state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse

  • Oscar Martínez
  • Antoni Sánchez
  • Xavier Font
  • Raquel Barrena
Biotechnological products and process engineering


2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) and 2-phenethyl acetate (2-PEA) are important aroma compounds widely used in food and cosmetic industries due to their rose-like odor. Nowadays, due to the growing demand for natural products, the development of bioprocesses for obtaining value-added compounds has become of great significance. 2-PE and 2-PEA can be produced through the biotransformation of L-phenylalanine using the generally recognized as safe strain Kluyveromyces marxianus. L-phenylalanine bioconversion systems have been typically focused on submerged fermentation processes (SmF), but there is no information about other alternative productive approaches. Here, the solid-state fermentation (SSF) of sugarcane bagasse supplemented with L-phenylalanine was investigated as a sustainable alternative for producing 2-PE and 2-PEA in a residue-based system using Kluyveromyces marxianus as inoculum. An initial screening of the operational variables indicated that air supply, temperature, and initial moisture content significantly affect the product yield. Besides, it was found that the feeding strategy also affects the production and the efficiency of the process. While a basic batch system produced 16 mgproducts per gram of residue (dry basis), by using split feeding strategies (fed-batch) of only sugarcane bagasse, a maximum of 18.4 mgProducts g−1residue were achieved. Increase in product yield was also accompanied by an increase in the consumption efficiency of nutrients and precursor. The suggested system results as effective as other more complex SmF systems to obtain 2-PE and 2-PEA, showing the feasibility of SSF as an alternative for producing these compounds through the valorization of an agro-industrial residue.


Solid-state fermentation Kluyveromyces marxianus Aroma compounds Rose-like compounds Waste to product 



Raquel Barrena thanks TECNIOspring programme for the outgoing + return Fellowship (no. TECSPR15-1-0051). Oscar Martínez thanks his PhD scholarship granted by the Colombian Government through Colciencias.

Funding information

This work was supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Project CTM2015-69513-R).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

253_2018_8964_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (168 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 167 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Composting Research Group, Department of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Escola d’EnginyeriaUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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