Season structures prokaryotic partners but not algal symbionts in subtropical hard corals
- 88 Downloads
Coral reef ecosystems have great economic, social, and ecological value. The ecological success of coral reef ecosystems critically depends on coral-algal symbiosis and coral-prokaryotic partnership. However, seasonal changes underlying these relationships in subtropical hard corals of Hong Kong are poorly studied. Here, we compared the community changes of algal symbionts and prokaryotic partners in Platygyra carnosa and Galaxea fascicularis from Hong Kong collected at two seasonal time points of winter and summer via massively parallel sequencing of genetic markers and multivariate analysis. The results indicated that algal symbionts showed no significant changes between the two seasonal time points but prokaryotic partners changed substantially. Prokaryotic partners putatively involved in photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and sulfur oxidation increased significantly from winter to summer, while prokaryotic partners potentially associated with chemosynthesis, ammonia oxidation, and nitrite oxidation decreased significantly from winter to summer. Dissolved oxygen and pH served as the main contributors influencing prokaryotic partners in winter, while temperature, turbidity, and salinity played a dominant role in shaping prokaryotic partners in summer. The findings of the present study suggest that season structures prokaryotic partners but not algal symbionts in subtropical hard corals.
KeywordsSeason Coral Algal symbiont Prokaryotic partner
The authors would like to thank Drs. Yue Him Wong, Apple Pui Yi Chui, and James Y. Xie for their kind help in experimental design and field sample collection.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Corals are marine invertebrates. The authors declare that this article follows the guidelines established by the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department of Hong Kong SAR Government.
- Arif C, Daniels C, Bayer T, Banguera-Hinestroza E, Barbrook A, Howe CJ, LaJeunesse TC, Voolstra CR (2014) Assessing Symbiodinium diversity in scleractinian corals via next-generation sequencing-based genotyping of the ITS2 rDNA region. Mol Ecol 23:4418–4433. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.12869 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bartram AK, Lynch MD, Stearns JC, Moreno-Hagelsieb G, Neufeld JD (2011) Generation of multimillion-sequence 16S rRNA gene libraries from complex microbial communities by assembling paired-end illumina reads. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:3846–3852. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02772-10 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Caporaso JG, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Costello EK, Fierer N, Pena AG, Goodrich JK, Gordon JI, Huttley GA, Kelley ST, Knights D, Koenig JE, Ley RE, Lozupone CA, McDonald D, Muegge BD, Pirrung M, Reeder J, Sevinsky JR, Turnbaugh PJ, Walters WA, Widmann J, Yatsunenko T, Zaneveld J, Knight R (2010) QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat Methods 7:335–336. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.f.303 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Haas BJ, Gevers D, Earl AM, Feldgarden M, Ward DV, Giannoukos G, Ciulla D, Tabbaa D, Highlander SK, Sodergren E, Methe B, DeSantis TZ, Human Microbiome C, Petrosino JF, Knight R, Birren BW (2011) Chimeric 16S rRNA sequence formation and detection in Sanger and 454-pyrosequenced PCR amplicons. Genome Res 21:494–504. https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.112730.110 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan DR (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4:9ppGoogle Scholar
- Langille MGI, Zaneveld J, Caporaso JG, McDonald D, Knights D, Reyes JA, Clemente JC, Burkepile DE, Thurber RLV, Knight R, Beiko RG, Huttenhower C (2013) Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene sequences. Nat Biotechnol 31:814–821. https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.2676 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lee OO, Yang JK, Bougouffa S, Wang Y, Batang Z, Tian RM, Al-Suwailem A, Qian PY (2012) Spatial and species variations in bacterial communities associated with corals from the Red Sea as revealed by pyrosequencing. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:7173–7184. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01111-12 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Y, Yang Q, Ling J, Van Nostrand JD, Shi Z, Zhou J, Dong J (2016) The shifts of diazotrophic communities in spring and summer associated with coral Galaxea astreata, Pavona decussata, and Porites lutea. Front Microbiol 7:1870. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01870 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Zhou G, Cai L, Li Y, Tong H, Jiang L, Zhang Y, Lei X, Guo M, Liu S, Qian PY, Huang H (2017) Temperature-driven local acclimatization of Symbiodinium hosted by the coral Galaxea fascicularis at Hainan Island, China. Front Microbiol 8:2487. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02487