Fungi from industrial tannins: potential application in biotransformation and bioremediation of tannery wastewaters
Tannins are a complex family of polyphenolic compounds, widely distributed in the plant kingdom where they act as growth inhibitors towards many microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts, and fungi. Tannins are one of the major components of tannery wastewaters and may cause serious environmental pollution. In the present study, four different tannins (the hydrolysable chestnut ellagitannin and tara gallotannin and the condensed quebracho and wattle tannins) were characterized from a mycological point of view with the aim of selecting fungal strains capable of growing in the presence of high tannin concentration and thus potentially useful in industrial biotransformations of these compounds or in the bioremediation of tannery wastewaters. A total of 125 isolates of filamentous fungi belonging to 10 species and four genera (Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, and Talaromyces) were isolated from the tannin industrial preparations. Miniaturized biotransformation tests were set up with 10 fungal strains and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis pointed out a strong activity of all the tested fungi on both chestnut and tara tannins. Two strains (Aspergillus tubingensis MUT 990 and Paecilomyces variotii MUT 1125), tested against a real tannery wastewater, were particularly efficient in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and tannin removal (> 60%), with a detoxification above 74%. These results indicate that these fungi are potentially exploitable in the treatment of tannery wastewaters.
KeywordsTannin Fungi Tannery wastewater Biotransformation Bioremediation
This work was supported by Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR) with the FIRB project RBFR13V3CH_002 with the title “In situ bioaugmentation to exploit the combination of fungi and bacteria for recalcitrant compounds removal.”
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Clarke KR, Warwick RM (2014) Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. PRIMER-E Ltd, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
- Cruz-Hernandez M, Augur C, Rodriguez R, Contreras-Esquivel JC, Aguilar CN (2006) Evaluation of culture conditions for tannase production by Aspergillus niger GH1. Food Technol Biotechnol 44:541–544Google Scholar
- Deschamps A, Otuk G, Lebeault J (1983) Production of tannase and degradation chestnut tannin by bacteria. J Ferment Technol 61:55–59Google Scholar
- Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson TH (1980) Compendium of soil fungi. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- European Commission (2010) Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on Industrial Emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control). Off J Eur Union L334/17Google Scholar
- Giovando S, Pizzi A, Pasch H, Pretorius N (2013) Structure and oligomers distribution of commercial tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) hydrolysable tannin. ProLigno 9:22–31Google Scholar
- International Organization for Standardization (2004) ISO 8692:2004 water quality—freshwater algal growth inhibition test with unicellular green algae. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- International Organization for Standardization (2012) ISO 14088:2012 leather—chemical tests—quantitative analysis of tanning agents by filter method. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Kiffer E, Morelet M (1997) Les Deuteromycetes: classification et cles d'Identification Generique. INRA Editions, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Knudson L (1913) Tannic acid fermentation. J Biol Chem 14:159–184Google Scholar
- Lara-Victoriano F, Veana F, Hernandez-Castillo FD, Aguilar CN, Reyes-Valdes MH, Rodriduez-Herrera R (2017) Variability among strains of Aspergillus section Nigri with capacity to degrade tannic acid isolated from extreme environments. Arch Microbiol 199:77–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-016-1277-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Messini A, Buccioni A, Minieri S, Mannelli F, Mugnai L, Comparini C, Venturi M, Viti C, Pezzati A, Rapaccini S (2017) Effect of chestnut tannin extract (Castanea sativa Miller) on the proliferation of Cladosporium cladosporioides on sheep cheese rind during the ripening. Int Dairy J 66:6–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2016.10.012
- Samson RA, Houbraken J, Thrane U, Frisvad JC, Andersen B (2010) Food and indoor fungi. CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
- Silva de Lima J, Cruz R, Cordoville Fonseca J, Valente de Medeiros E, de Holanda Cavalcanti Maciel M, Aparecida Moreira K, de Souza Motta C (2014) Production, characterization of tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF using agroindustrial wastes, and application in the clarification of grape juice (Vitis vinifera L.) Sci World J 2014:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/182025 Google Scholar
- Venter PB, Sisa M, Van der Merwe MJ, Bonnet SL, Van der Westhuizen JH (2012) Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 1: the chemical composition of quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii and Schinopsis balansae) heartwood extract. Phytochemistry 73:95–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.10.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- von Arx JA (1981) The genera of fungi sporulating in pure culture. J Cramer, VaduzGoogle Scholar