Effect of ultrasound on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus strains in date (Phoenix dactylifera var. Kabkab) syrup
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Date syrup is rich in fermentable sugars and may be used as a substrate for different microbial fermentations, including lactic acid fermentation processes. The beneficial effects of ultrasounds (US) on bioprocesses have been reported for several microorganisms, due to the enhancement of cell growth, as well as improvements in yields and productivities. Therefore, US treatments (30 kHz, 100 W, 10–30 min) were applied to two lactobacilli (Lactobacillus helveticus PTCC 1332 and Lactobacillus acidophilus PTCC 1643), during fermentation using date syrup as substrate. The effects on lactic acid fermentation were evaluated by analyzing cell growth (dry cell weight and viable cell count), substrate consumption (quantification of glucose and fructose), and product formation (quantification of lactic acid) over time. The effects of US were also evaluated on cell membrane permeability. Both lactobacilli were able to grow well on date syrup without the need for addition of further ingredients. The US effects were highly dependent on treatment duration: treatments of 10- and 20-min stimulated lactobacilli growth, while the treatment extension to 30 min negatively affected cell growth. Similarly, the 10- and 20-min treatments increased sugar consumption and lactic acid production, contrarily to the 30-min treatment. All US treatments increased cell membrane permeability, with a more pronounced effect at more extended treatments. The results of this work showed that application of appropriate US treatments could be a useful tool for stimulation of lactic acid production from date syrup, as well as for other fermentative processes that use date syrup as substrate.
KeywordsDate syrup Lactic acid Fermentation Lactobacillus acidophilus Lactobacillus helveticus Ultrasound
Amin Mousavi Khaneghah wishes to thank the support of CNPq-TWAS Postgraduate Fellowship (grant no. 3240274290). Author Maria J. Mota thanks Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia for the grant SFRH/BD/97061/2013 and Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia/Ministério da Educação e Ciência for the financial support to the QOPNA research Unit (FCT UID/QUI/00062/2013), through national funds and where applicable co-financed by the Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER), within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement.
Compliance with ethical standards
The support from the laboratory of Food Science and Technology Department, Fasa University, is also appreciated.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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