Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is becoming an increasingly important food crop. Understanding the microbiome of quinoa and its relationships with soil microorganisms may improve crop yield potential or nutrient use efficiency. Whether quinoa is a host or non-host of a key soil symbiont, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), is suddenly up for debate with recent field studies reporting root colonization and presence of arbuscules. This research seeks to add evidence to the mycorrhizal classification of quinoa as we investigated additional conditions not previously explored in quinoa that may affect root colonization. A greenhouse study used six AMF species, two AMF commercial inoculant products, and a diverse set of 10 quinoa genotypes. Results showed 0 to 3% quinoa root colonization by AMF when grown under greenhouse conditions. Across quinoa genotypes, AMF inoculant affected shoot dry weight (p = 0.066) and height (p = 0.031). Mykos Gold produced greater dry biomass than Claroideoglomus eutunicatum (27% increase), Rhizophagus clarus (26% increase), and within genotype CQ119, the control (21% increase). No treatment increased plant height compared to control, but Funneliformis mosseae increased height compared to C. eutunicatum (25% increase) and Rhizophagus intraradices (25% increase). Although quinoa plants were minimally colonized by AMF, plant growth responses fell along the mutualism-parasitism continuum. Individual AMF treatments increased leaf greenness in quinoa genotypes 49ALC and QQ87, while R. clarus decreased greenness in CQ119 compared to the control. Our research findings support the recommendation to classify quinoa as non-mycorrhizal when no companion plant is present and inconsistently mycorrhizal when conditional colonization occurs.
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This research would not have been possible without help from Dr. J.B. Morton, former curator of the International Culture Collection of (Vesicular) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (INVAM) at West Virginia University. The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for critical commentary that greatly improved the manuscript.
Availability of data and material
The datasets generated during and/or analyzed in this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
R code is available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
This research was funded by Lundberg Family Farms, Richvale, California, USA, and Hatch project 1014754.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Kellogg, J.A., Reganold, J.P., Murphy, K.M. et al. A Plant-Fungus Bioassay Supports the Classification of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as Inconsistently Mycorrhizal. Microb Ecol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01710-1
- Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
- Host-microbe interactions