Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 47, Issue 13, pp 1839–1848 | Cite as

Technical aspects of mediastinal ultrasound for pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis

  • Kara-Lee PoolEmail author
  • Charlotte C. Heuvelings
  • Sabine Bélard
  • Martin P. Grobusch
  • Heather J. Zar
  • Dorothy Bulas
  • Brian Garra
  • Savvas Andronikou
Technical Innovation


Diagnosing childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may be challenging due to difficulties in obtaining adequate sputum samples, paucibacillary disease and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Chest radiography is an important diagnostic tool for pulmonary TB, but it involves radiation exposure, requires facilities that can house X-ray equipment and has poor inter-reader agreement. The cardinal radiologic finding of mediastinal lymphadenopathy may be detected using mediastinal ultrasound (US). We describe technical aspects of performing mediastinal US, which may assist diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary TB.


Children Chest Lungs Lymph nodes Mediastinum Tuberculosis Ultrasound 



Special thanks to Anshuman Bansal, MD, for his assistance in creating the schematic illustrations in Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6 and to Mr. Frank Miele for creating the US probe illustrations used in Figs. 1 and 2.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiological SciencesDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital and MRC Unit on Child & Adolescent HealthUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  3. 3.Center of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical CenterUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Charité – Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany
  5. 5.Department of Pediatric Pneumology and ImmunologyBerlin Institute of HealthBerlinGermany
  6. 6.Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children’s National Health SystemGeorge Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  7. 7.Department of Radiology Veterans Affairs Medical CenterWashingtonUSA
  8. 8.Division of Imaging, Diagnostics and Software Reliability, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories,Center for Devices and Radiological Health,U.S. Food & Drug AdministrationSilver SpringUSA
  9. 9.Department of Pediatric Radiology,Bristol Royal Hospital for ChildrenUniversity of BristolBristolUK

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