Diagnosing childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may be challenging due to difficulties in obtaining adequate sputum samples, paucibacillary disease and the low sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Chest radiography is an important diagnostic tool for pulmonary TB, but it involves radiation exposure, requires facilities that can house X-ray equipment and has poor inter-reader agreement. The cardinal radiologic finding of mediastinal lymphadenopathy may be detected using mediastinal ultrasound (US). We describe technical aspects of performing mediastinal US, which may assist diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary TB.
Children Chest Lungs Lymph nodes Mediastinum Tuberculosis Ultrasound
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Special thanks to Anshuman Bansal, MD, for his assistance in creating the schematic illustrations in Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6 and to Mr. Frank Miele for creating the US probe illustrations used in Figs. 1 and 2.
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Conflicts of interest
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