Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 47, Issue 13, pp 1707–1720 | Cite as

Role of magnetic resonance urography in pediatric renal fusion anomalies

  • Sherwin S. ChanEmail author
  • Aikaterini Ntoulia
  • Dmitry Khrichenko
  • Susan J. Back
  • Gregory E. Tasian
  • Jonathan R. Dillman
  • Kassa Darge


Renal fusion is on a spectrum of congenital abnormalities that occur due to disruption of the migration process of the embryonic kidneys from the pelvis to the retroperitoneal renal fossae. Clinically, renal fusion anomalies are often found incidentally and associated with increased risk for complications, such as urinary tract obstruction, infection and urolithiasis. These anomalies are most commonly imaged using ultrasound for anatomical definition and less frequently using renal scintigraphy to quantify differential renal function and assess urinary tract drainage. Functional magnetic resonance urography (fMRU) is an advanced imaging technique that combines the excellent soft-tissue contrast of conventional magnetic resonance (MR) images with the quantitative assessment based on contrast medium uptake and excretion kinetics to provide information on renal function and drainage. fMRU has been shown to be clinically useful in evaluating a number of urological conditions. A highly sensitive and radiation-free imaging modality, fMRU can provide detailed morphological and functional information that can facilitate conservative and/or surgical management of children with renal fusion anomalies. This paper reviews the embryological basis of the different types of renal fusion anomalies, their imaging appearances at fMRU, complications associated with fusion anomalies, and the important role of fMRU in diagnosing and managing children with these anomalies.


Children Functional magnetic resonance urography Kidney Magnetic resonance imaging Renal fusion abnormalities Urinary tract 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sherwin S. Chan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aikaterini Ntoulia
    • 2
  • Dmitry Khrichenko
    • 2
  • Susan J. Back
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gregory E. Tasian
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jonathan R. Dillman
    • 5
  • Kassa Darge
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyChildren’s Mercy HospitalKansas CityUSA
  2. 2.Division of Body Imaging, Department of RadiologyThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Division of Thoracoabdominal Imaging, Department of RadiologyCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

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