Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 47, Issue 12, pp 1588–1593 | Cite as

Relationship between heart rate and quiescent interval of the cardiac cycle in children using MRI

  • Wei Zhang
  • Saivivek Bogale
  • Farahnaz Golriz
  • Rajesh Krishnamurthy
Original Article



Imaging the heart in children comes with the challenge of constant cardiac motion. A prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT scan allows for scanning during a predetermined phase of the cardiac cycle with least motion. This technique requires knowing the optimal quiescent intervals of cardiac cycles in a pediatric population.


To evaluate high-temporal-resolution cine MRI of the heart in children to determine the relationship of heart rate to the optimal quiescent interval within the cardiac cycle.

Materials and methods

We included a total of 225 consecutive patients ages 0–18 years who had high-temporal-resolution cine steady-state free-precession sequence performed as part of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance angiography study of the heart. We determined the location and duration of the quiescent interval in systole and diastole for heart rates ranging 40–178 beats per minute (bpm). We performed the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the duration of quiescent interval in systole and diastole for each heart rate group.


The duration of the quiescent interval at heart rates <80 bpm and >90 bpm was significantly longer in diastole and systole, respectively (P<.0001 for all ranges, except for 90–99 bpm [P=.02]). For heart rates 80–89 bpm, diastolic interval was longer than systolic interval, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). We created a chart depicting optimal quiescent intervals across a range of heart rates that could be applied for prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT imaging of the heart.


The optimal quiescent interval at heart rates <80 bpm is in diastole and at heart rates ≥90 bpm is in systole. The period of quiescence at heart rates 80–89 bpm is uniformly short in systole and diastole.


Computed tomography Children Electrocardiography Heart Magnetic resonance imaging Quiescent interval 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.E. B. Singleton Department of Pediatric RadiologyTexas Children’s HospitalHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyBaylor University Medical CenterDallasUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyNationwide Children’s HospitalColumbusUSA

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