Hybrid Subxiphoid Perventricular Approach as an Alternative Access in Neonates and Small Children Undergoing Complex Congenital Heart Interventions


The hybrid subxiphoid perventricular approach provides direct access through the heart and may alleviate the technical limitations of complex percutaneous interventions particularly in infants with low body weight. We present the outcomes from a tertiary cardiology center using this approach. We performed a retrospective review of all patients less than 15 kg who underwent a hybrid perventricular approach via a small subxiphoid incision. Medical records were reviewed to obtain clinical, demographic and outcome data. Seventeen patients underwent 18 hybrid perventricular procedures using a subxiphoid approach. Median age at time of procedure was 4.6 months (IQR = 1.6 to 18 months) and median weight was 6.2 kgs (IQR = 3.4 to 8.6 kgs). Six patients underwent hybrid pulmonary valve replacement (PVR), 5 patients underwent pulmonary outflow stenting, and 5 infants underwent hybrid ventricular septal defect (VSD) device closure. One patient with a single ventricle who did not tolerate a percutaneous approach underwent left pulmonary artery (LPA) stenting for severe LPA coarctation with subsequent right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) stenting. One further patient underwent implantation of a larger diameter stent for pulmonary artery bifurcation stenosis. Procedure success rate was 89% with two of the VSD cases reverted to open surgical repair. There were no intra-procedural complications; however, one patient died within 72 h. Minor adverse events occurred in 2 patients including a wound infection in one patient with an immunodeficiency syndrome. Hybrid subxiphoid perventricular approach provides an excellent alternative access to the heart especially in low birth weight infants to prevent hemodynamic instability or in small children requiring large delivery sheaths.

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Correspondence to Li Yen Ng.

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Ng, L.Y., Al-Alawi, K., Breatnach, C. et al. Hybrid Subxiphoid Perventricular Approach as an Alternative Access in Neonates and Small Children Undergoing Complex Congenital Heart Interventions. Pediatr Cardiol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00246-020-02510-z

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  • Hybrid subxiphoid perventricular approach
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Complex cardiac catheterization
  • Low weight infant