Mitral Valve Replacement in Pediatrics Using an Extracellular Matrix Cylinder Valve: A Case Series

Abstract

Mitral valve replacement (MVR) in children under 2 years is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Decellularized porcine intestinal submucosa is a commercially available formulation of an extracellular matrix (ECM) with an indication for cardiac tissue repair. The present study reports our experience using ECM cylinder valves in patients for MVR. A retrospective review of patients under 2 years who underwent ECM custom-made cylinder mitral valve (ECM-MV) replacement was performed. Clinical, demographic, operative and post-operative follow-up data, including serial echocardiographic data are presented. Eight patients (age 5.6 ± 1.6 months; weight: 6.0 ± 1.1 kg) were identified who underwent ECM-MVR. There was one in-hospital death and no major neurological events. Six patients underwent replacement of their cylinder valve with either a Melody valve inside the ECM-MVR (n = 3), a mechanical valve (n = 2), or a decellularized bovine pericardial cylinder valve (n = 1). The mean time to replacement surgery was 8.4 ± 2.6 months after ECM-MV. The indications for replacement of ECM-MV included mitral stenosis/regurgitation (n = 4) or dehiscence (n = 2). One remaining patient is 24 months from ECM-MV, with trivial regurgitation and no stenosis. Mitral valve creation using ECM is an option for MVR in pediatrics, avoiding anticoagulation, and provides a suitable construct for later placement of a Melody valve, extending surgical and non-surgical options. However, the durability of the native ECM-MV in the mitral position is concerning considering the high re-intervention rate in a relatively short time period. Further studies are needed to determine the longer-term outcomes of this valve in this complex patient population.

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CK, CC, PB, and PM all participated in the writing and editing.

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Correspondence to Carmen Kiper.

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Kiper, C., Cua, C.L., Baker, P. et al. Mitral Valve Replacement in Pediatrics Using an Extracellular Matrix Cylinder Valve: A Case Series. Pediatr Cardiol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00246-020-02382-3

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Keywords

  • Mitral valve replacement
  • Mitral stenosis
  • Mitral regurgitation
  • Cormatrix