Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Fractional Shortening are Useful for the Prediction of the Therapeutic Response to Metoprolol in Children with Vasovagal Syncope
The objective of this manuscript was to explore if left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) could predict the efficacy of metoprolol therapy on vasovagal syncope (VVS) in children. Forty-nine children, including 30 with VVS and 19 gender- and age-matched healthy controls, were included in the study. Metoprolol was prescribed to the VVS subjects. The clinical data were obtained during follow-up at 2 and 6 months. The results showed that LVEF and LVFS of responders were significantly higher than those of non-responders both at the 2-month follow-up (LVEF: 72.5 ± 3.2% vs. 64.6 ± 3.4%; LVFS: 40.9 ± 2.3% vs. 34.9 ± 2.9%), and at the 6-month follow-up (LVEF: 72.8 ± 2.8% vs. 65.5 ± 4.6%; LVFS: 41.1 ± 1.9% vs. 35.8 ± 3.6%). The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis demonstrated that 70.5% as a cutoff value of baseline LVEF yielded a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 100% in predicting the therapeutic effectiveness of metoprolol at 2 months. For baseline LVFS, 38.5% as a cutoff value yielded a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 90%. At the 6-month follow-up, the ROC analysis demonstrated that 70.5% as a cutoff value of baseline LVEF yielded a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 88.9% in the prediction of metoprolol efficacy. For baseline LVFS, 37.5% as a cutoff value yielded a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 66.7%. In conclusion, baseline LVEF and LVFS might be useful predictors of the efficacy of β-blocker therapy on VVS in children.
KeywordsEchocardiography Vasovagal syncope Metoprolol Child and adolescent
This work was supported by Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Major Project (No. Z171100001017253, Beijing, China) and National Youth Top-notch Talent Support Program (China). There has been no other financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome. The funding agencies had no other involvement, such as study design; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication in this work.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This manuscript is approved by all authors for publication.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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