Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 976–982 | Cite as

Tissue Motion Annular Displacement of the Mitral Valve Can Be a Useful Index for the Evaluation of Left Ventricular Systolic Function by Echocardiography in Normal Children

  • Dai Asada
  • Kenichi Okumura
  • Kazuyuki Ikeda
  • Toshiyuki Itoi
Original Article
  • 88 Downloads

Abstract

As the important role of longitudinal shortening in ventricular function has been well recognized over the past decade, evaluation of longitudinal systolic function of the left ventricle has become a subject of growing interest. Tissue motion annular displacement of the mitral valve (TMAD) is a new parameter of longitudinal systolic function. Although some studies have reported that this new parameter correlates with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in adults, little is known about TMAD in normal children. In this work, we investigated 94 children with no history of cardiovascular disease. TMAD was measured in the apical four-chamber view using the two-dimensional speckle tracking technique. Three points for tracking were selected in a diastolic frame: the lateral mitral valve annulus, medial mitral valve annulus, and left ventricular apex. The value was expressed as the percentage of displacement of the midpoint of the mitral valve annulus, using software to correct for left ventricular length at end-diastole. Pearson’s coefficient was used to estimate the correlation between TMAD and left ventricular systolic function parameters including the biplane modified Simpson method-derived ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain (GLS). We also analyzed the correlation between TMAD and heart rate (HR), height, age, and body surface area (BSA). TMAD was found to correlate significantly with LVEF (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and GLS (r = −0.77, p < 0.01). However, no correlation was revealed for HR (r = −0.14, p = 0.19), height (r = −0.17, p = 0.10), age (r = −0.19, p = 0.09), or BSA (r = −0.19, p = 0.08). These results indicate that TMAD is useful for assessing LVEF and longitudinal systolic function in normal children, and is not influenced by changes in HR, height, age, or BSA.

Keywords

Tissue motion annular displacement Longitudinal function Biplane modified Simpson method Global longitudinal strain Speckle tracking echocardiography Normal children 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Black DE, Bryant J, Peebles C, Godfrey KM, Hanson M, Vettukattil JJ (2014) Tissue motion annular displacement of the mitral valve using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography predicts the left ventricular ejection fraction in normal children. Cardiol Young 24:640–648CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mor-Avi V, Lang RM, Badano LP, Belohlavek M, Cardim NM, Derumeaux G, Galderisi M, Marwick T, Nagueh SF, Sengupta PP, Sicari R, Smiseth OA, Smulevitz B, Takeuchi M, Thomas JD, Vannan M, Voigt JU, Zamorano JL (2011) Current and evolving echocardiographic techniques for the quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanics: ASE/EAE consensus statement on methodology and indications endorsed by the Japanese Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 24:277–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    DeCara JM, Toledo E, Salgo IS, Lammertin G, Weinert L, Lang RM (2005) Evaluation of left ventricular systolic function using automated angle-independent motion tracking of mitral annular displacement. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 18:1266–1269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tsang W, Ahmad H, Patel AR, Sugeng L, Salgo IS, Weinert L, Mor-Avi V, Lang RM (2010) Rapid estimation of left ventricular function using echocardiographic speckle-tracking of mitral annular displacement. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 23:511–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schiller NB, Shah PM, Crawford M, DeMaria A, Devereux R, Feigenbaum H, Gutgesell H, Reichek N, Sahn D, Schnittger I et al (1989) Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. American Society of Echocardiography Committee on Standards, Subcommittee on Quantitation of Two-Dimensional Echocardiograms. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2:358–367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Okumura K, Slorach C, Mroczek D, Dragulescu A, Mertens L, Redington AN, Friedberg MK (2014) Right ventricular diastolic performance in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: correlation of echocardiographic parameters with invasive reference standards by high-fidelity micromanometer catheter. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 7:491–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roberson DA, Cui W (2009) Tissue Doppler imaging measurement of left ventricular systolic function in children: mitral annular displacement index is superior to peak velocity. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 22:376–382CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Russo C, Jin Z, Homma S, Elkind MS, Rundek T, Yoshita M, DeCarli C, Wright CB, Sacco RL, Di Tullio MR (2013) Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction and silent cerebrovascular disease: the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. Circulation 128:1105–1111CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chelini V, Hascoet S, Hadeed K, Weil O, Peyre M, Dulac Y, Acar P (2013) Feasibility and reproducibility of tissue motion annular displacement of mitral valve in children with and without heart disease. Arch Cardiovasc Dis 106:263–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moss AJ, Hall WJ, Cannom DS, Klein H, Brown MW, Daubert JP, Estes NA 3rd, Foster E, Greenberg H, Higgins SL, Pfeffer MA, Solomon SD, Wilber D, Zareba W, MADIT-CRT Trial Investigators (2009) Cardiac-resynchronization therapy for the prevention of heart-failure events. N Engl J Med 361:1329–1338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ho SY (2009) Anatomy and myoarchitecture of the left ventricular wall in normal and in disease. Eur J Echocardiogr 10:iii3–iii7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andersson B, Waagstein F, Caidahl K, Eurenius I, Täng MS, Wikh R (2000) Early changes in longitudinal performance predict future improvement in global left ventricular function during long term beta adrenergic blockade. Heart 84:599–605CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carlsson M, Ugander M, Mosén H, Buhre T, Arheden H (2007) Atrioventricular plane displacement is the major contributor to left ventricular pumping in healthy adults, athletes, and patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292:H1452–H1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Notomi Y, Srinath G, Shiota T, Martin-Miklovic MG, Beachler L, Howell K, Oryszak SJ, Deserranno DG, Freed AD, Greenberg NL, Younoszai A, Thomas JD (2006) Maturational and adaptive modulation of left ventricular torsional biomechanics: Doppler tissue imaging observation from infancy to adulthood. Circulation 113:2534–2541CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Geyer H, Caracciolo G, Abe H, Wilansky S, Carerj S, Gentile F, Nesser HJ, Khandheria B, Narula J, Sengupta PP (2010) Assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle tracking echocardiography: fundamentals and clinical applications. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 23:351–369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Greenbaum RA, Ho SY, Gibson DG, Becker AE, Anderson RH (1981) Left ventricular fibre architecture in man. Br Heart J 45(3):248–263CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lorch SM, Ludomirsky A, Singh GK (2008) Maturational and growth-related changes in left ventricular longitudinal strain and strain rate measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy pediatric population. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 21:1207–1215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medical ScienceKyoto Prefectural University of MedicineKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations