Study on ECG in the Adolescent
Normal ECG values in newborns, infants, and children have been collected and published. ECG in the adolescent, however, remains, to be collected and studied. The present study was designed and carried out to establish the normal ECG standards in male and female adolescents. A total of 898 school children and adolescents screened and examined as healthy were divided by age and sex into 6–9, 9–13, and 13–18 years age-groups. A 12 lead conventional ECG was recorded in 10 mm/mV and 25 mm/s, utilizing an automated Fukuda Denshi FCP-4301, MS-DOS/IBM-AT ECG machine. Lead V3R was not taken. Analog-to-digital conversion was performed by Fukuda signal acquisition module at a sampling rate of 500 Hz. The data on 69 ECG parameters were analyzed for the mean, standard deviation, 2nd to 98th percentiles, 95% confidence intervals, and sex difference. Normal values on 69 ECG parameters, sex-specific heart rate, P-QRS-T interval, duration, axis, wave amplitude, and calculated R/S amplitude ratio and ventricular activation time by age-group and sex were established. Male and female difference was noted in 49 (71.0%) parameters, of which 3 (6.1%) began in 6–9 years age-group, 30 (61.2%) began in 9–13 years age-group, and 16 (32.7%) in 13–18 years age-group. No sex difference occurred in 20 (29.0%) parameters. Normal male and female ECG standards on 69 ECG parameters in the adolescent were established. ECG sex difference began to appear the earliest at ages 6–9 years, and it occurred mostly at ages 9–13 years and 13–18 years, reflecting the anatomical and physiological consequences of puberty.
KeywordsNormal ECG values Children and adolescents Puberty Male and female
The authors are grateful to the technicians and pediatricians, who participated in the screening and examination of the subjects. We thank Miss Y. C. Hua for her tireless work and Dr. Jack Chen for statistical analysis.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest relevant to this article.
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