Serum Concentrations of New Predictive Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers in Mexican Women Exposed to Lead

  • Ángeles C. Ochoa-Martínez
  • Elvia D. Cardona-Lozano
  • Leticia Carrizales-Yáñez
  • Iván N. Pérez-Maldonado


The purpose of this study was to evaluate lead exposure and its relationship with serum levels of predictive CVD biomarkers [asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4), adiponectin, and chemerin] in women living in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. A mean blood lead level (BLL) of 11.5 ± 9.00 μg/dL (mean ± standard deviation) was found after all blood samples were analyzed. Regarding serum predictive CVD biomarkers, mean serum level of 0.68 ± 0.38 μmol/L, 20.5 ± 16.5 ng/mL, 12.5 ± 3.30 μg/mL, and 255 ± 130 ng/mL were found for ADMA, FABP4, adiponectin, and chemerin, respectively. Simple significant associations (Pearson´s correlations) between BLL and ADMA (r = 0.17; p = 0.04) and FABP4 (r = 0.23; p = 0.03) were found. Furthermore, a multivariate linear regression model showed that BLL was a significant predictor of serum ADMA (β = 0.06; p = 0.001) and FABP4 (β = 1.75; p = 0.0004) concentrations after adjusting by confounders. For serum chemerin and adiponectin levels, no associations were found with BLL. In conclusion, high serum ADMA and FABP4 (predictive CVD biomarkers) levels were found in women exposed to lead. Consequently, this research can be used as a point of departure for the prevention of CVD events in populations living in sites environmentally impacted with lead.



This work was supported by CONACyT (Grant CONACyT- PDCPN2015-1558 and Fondo Sectorial SEMARNAT–CONACYT-249421). Special Thanks to Miss Laura Carmen Martinez for English language editing.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no declaration of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio de Toxicología Molecular, Centro de Investigación Aplicada en Ambiente y Salud (CIAAS), Coordinación para la Innovación y Aplicación de la Ciencia y la Tecnología (CIACYT)Universidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíSan Luis PotosíMexico
  2. 2.Facultad de MedicinaUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíSan Luis PotosíMexico
  3. 3.Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Zona MediaUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíRio-VerdeMexico

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