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Evaluation of Levels, Sources and Health Hazards of Road-Dust Associated Toxic Metals in Jalalabad and Kabul Cities, Afghanistan

  • Waqar Azeem Jadoon
  • Wahdatullah Khpalwak
  • Russel Chrispine Garven Chidya
  • Sherif Mohamed Mohamed Ali Abdel-Dayem
  • Kazuhiko Takeda
  • Masood Arshad Makhdoom
  • Hiroshi SakugawaEmail author
Article

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate selected road-dust associated heavy metals, their relations with natural and anthropogenic sources, and potential human and environmental health risks. For this purpose, 42 and 36 road-dusts samples were collected from Jalalabad and Kabul cities (Afghanistan), respectively. The following elements were found in descending concentrations: Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Co, and Cd in Jalalabad; and Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Co, and Cd in Kabul. Except for Ni, all the elemental contents were less than the Canadian permissible limits in residential/parkland soils. Principle Component Analysis and enrichment of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn pointed to anthropogenic sources, whereas Co, Cr, and Mn indicated crustal inputs. Broadly, Cd monomial risk index (\(E_{r}^{i}\)) was considerable; however, one site each in both cities showed high risk (\(E_{r}^{i}\) ≥ 350). The potential ecological risk (RI) is mostly low; however, at some sites, the risk was considerable. Ingestion appeared to be the main exposure route (99%) for heavy metals and contributed > 90% to noncancerous (all residents), as well as 92% (children) and 75–89% (adults) cancerous risks. The noncancerous risks of all metals and their integrated risks for all residents were within acceptable levels. Moreover, potential cancer risks in children from Ni and Cr were slightly higher than the US-EPA safe levels but were within acceptable levels for adults. This study found higher risks to children and therefore recommends proper management and ways to control metals pollution load in these areas to decrease human health and RIs.

Notes

Acknowledgements

A Grant under PEACE Project batch 5, from The Japan International Cooperation Agency supported this effort. Dr. Lawrence M. Liao, Dr. Mike Alba, and anonymous reviewers should be sincerely appreciated for their constructive comments that greatly improved the language and quality of this study.

Supplementary material

244_2017_475_MOESM1_ESM.docx (115 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 114 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waqar Azeem Jadoon
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wahdatullah Khpalwak
    • 1
    • 3
  • Russel Chrispine Garven Chidya
    • 1
    • 4
  • Sherif Mohamed Mohamed Ali Abdel-Dayem
    • 1
    • 5
  • Kazuhiko Takeda
    • 1
  • Masood Arshad Makhdoom
    • 6
  • Hiroshi Sakugawa
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate School of Biosphere ScienceHiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Research Center for Inland Seas, Kobe UniversityKobeJapan
  3. 3.Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of AgricultureNangarhar UniversityJalalabadAfghanistan
  4. 4.Department of Water Resources Management, Faculty of Environmental SciencesMzuzu UniversityMzuzuMalawi
  5. 5.Department of Pesticides Chemistry, Faculty of AgricultureKafrelsheikh UniversityKafrelsheikhEgypt
  6. 6.World Wide Fund for NatureLahorePakistan

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