Gender-related differences in the risk factors for repeat stone surgery


Our objective was to analyze and compare the associations between potential risk factors for nephrolithiasis and repeat stone surgery in male and female patients. We retrospectively analyzed 1970 patients who had stone surgery at our institution in the period from January 2009 to May 2017, were older than 18 years and had at least 12 months of postoperative follow-up. Our definition of surgical recurrence included repeat surgery on the same renal unit or on the opposite renal unit if the original imaging did not demonstrate significant stones on that side. Uni- and multivariate Cox regression models were built for each gender. We also explored the interactions between gender and other patient’s characteristics in their effect on the risk of recurrence. Ureteroscopy was the most common treatment modality for both first (83%) and repeat (87%) procedures. Over a mean follow-up of 4.3 years (median 3.8, interquartile range 2.2–6.0), 413 (21.0%) patients had a surgical recurrence. In multivariate analyses, hypertension, diabetes, Caucasian race and younger age (less than 60 years) were significantly associated with the risk of surgical recurrence only in females. Interaction between these characteristics and gender was significant indicating a larger effect on the risk of surgical recurrence in females compared to males. Our study demonstrated a number of differences in the predictors of repeat surgery for nephrolithiasis between males and females. If confirmed by future studies these differences may be helpful for optimizing nephrolithiasis prevention efforts.

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Correspondence to Viacheslav Iremashvili.

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Iremashvili, V., Li, S., Dresner, S.L. et al. Gender-related differences in the risk factors for repeat stone surgery. Urolithiasis (2021).

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  • Gender
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy
  • Renal stone recurrence
  • Shock-wave lithotripsy
  • Ureteroscopy