Radiologic evaluation of children prior to SWL: to what extent they are exposed to radiation?

  • Bilal Eryildirim
  • Ozlem Turkoglu
  • Cemal Goktas
  • Ovunc Kavukoglu
  • Rasim Guzel
  • Kemal Sarica
Original Paper


The objective of this study is to evaluate the average radiation exposure in children with renal stones before SWL treatment. Mean radiation exposure values were evaluated in 110 children before SWL treatment. While some children referred to the emergency department (ED) with colic pain, remaining cases referred to outpatient department (OD). Although low-dose NCCT was performed in ED; KUB and abdominal sonography were first performed in other cases referring to OD where CT has been applied if needed. The type of imaging modality used and the mean radiation exposure were evaluated and comparatively evaluated with respect to the department referred, patient as well as stone related parameters. 49 children referred to ED and 61 children referred to OD. Mean stone size was 7.24 ± 0.29 mm. 62 cases had opaque stones. Mean radiation exposure values were higher in children referring to ED than the other cases. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean number of KUB, IVU and sonographic evaluation performed prior to SWL management. There was a significant correlation between the mean radiation exposure and the stone size as well degree of hydonephrosis in a positive manner. Although a significant correlation was present between the mean radiation exposure and stone opacity in a negative manner; there was no correlation with respect to the other related parameters. Unnecessary use of X-ray based imaging modalities in children could be effectively avoided using KUB and US combination beginning from the diagnostic phase of stone disease.


Radiation Children Shock wave lithotripsy Renal stones 



As low as reasonably achievable


Computed tomography


Emergency department


Hounsfield unit


Intravenous urography


International Commission on Radiological Protection






Noncontrast computed tomography


Outpatient department


Shock wave lithotripsy


Urinary tract infection




Compliance with ethical standards


This study was not funded by any institution.

Conflict of interest

Bilal Eryildirim, Ozlem Turkoglu, Cemal Goktas, Ovunc Kavukoglu, Rasim Guzel and Kemal Sarica declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bilal Eryildirim
    • 1
  • Ozlem Turkoglu
    • 2
  • Cemal Goktas
    • 1
  • Ovunc Kavukoglu
    • 1
  • Rasim Guzel
    • 3
  • Kemal Sarica
    • 1
  1. 1.Lutfi Kirdar Training and Research HospitalUrology ClinicIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Lutfi Kirdar Training and Research HospitalRadiology ClinicIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Medistate Hospital Urology DepartmentIstanbulTurkey

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