Investigation on the mitigation of environmental harmful emissions by incorporating nanoparticles to biofuel water nano emulsion in low heat rejection engine

A Correction to this article was published on 12 March 2021

This article has been updated


The quantity of energy consumers in the country is extensive in the current quick-moving situation; the whole car industry puts a significant part in energy utilization. Biofuels have lured consideration among other alternative fuels as indicated by their natural element and synthetic creation.In this test, the aluminum nanoparticles are prepared by three various proportions (50, 100 and 150 ppm) being used in the base engine. To introduced thermal barrier coated engine in piston top face and the desired thickness is 500 μm with the assistance ofmethods using plasma spray and coated with PSZ material. A diesel engine is tested with 100% Borassus flabellifer, 20% Borassus flabellifer +75% mineral fuel +5% content of water and 20% Borassus flabellifer+75% mineral fuel+5% content of water + Al2O3 (50 ppm), 20% Borassus flabellifer +75% mineral fuel +5% content of water + Al2O3 (100 ppm) and 20% Borassus flabellifer+75% mineral fuel+5% content of water + Al2O3 (150 ppm),. The blend BFNP 150 shows an higher in break thermal efficiency by 5.12% when correlated with diesel fuel. The hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and opacity of the blend BFNP150 decreased by 22.42%, 31.98%, and 25.12% compared with the diesel fuel. Oxides of nitrogen are increased by 11.24% in the BFNP 150 blends when compared to basefuel.To use the biofuel, the oxides of nitrogen are increased to reduce the NOx the water content is adopted into the fuel with the surfactant’s help. Most of the research the Span 80 and Tween 80 was used as surfactant due to the high HLB value, and stability of the emission is withstanding for long times.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17

Change history


BF100 :

Borassus flabellifer

BF20 :

20% Borassus flabellifer +75% mineral fuel +5% content of water

BFNP 50 :

20% Borassus flabellifer +75% mineral fuel +5% content of water + Al2O3 (50 ppm)

BFNP 100 :

20% Borassus flabellifer +75% mineral fuel +5% content of water + Al2O3 (100 ppm)

BFNP 150 :

20% Borassus flabellifer +75% mineral fuel +5% content of water + Al2O3 (150 ppm)

NOx :

Oxides of Nitrogen


Brake Thermal Efficiency


Low Heat Rejection Engine

CO :

Carbon monoxide

HC :



Brake Specific Fuel Consumption


Jatropha Biodiesel oil


Oenothera Lamarckian biodiesel


Garciniagummi-gutta biodiesel


Waste cooking oil


Neat Palm Stearin Biodiesel


Biodiesel-Diesel blends


Biodiesel – Diesel Fuels


Nano-emulsion of waste orange peel oil biodiesel


Nano-emulsion of soybean biodiesel


Water in diesel emulsion


  1. 1.

    Reşitoğlu İA, Keskin A (2017) Biodiesel production from free fatty acids and the effects of its blends with alcohol–diesel on engine characteristics. Clean Techn Environ Policy 19:925–931.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Varuvel EG, Mrad N, Aloui F, Tazerout M (2017) Experimental analysis of fuel from fish processing industry waste in a diesel engine. Clean Techn Environ Policy 19:1099–1108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Datta A, Mandal BK (2017) A numerical study on the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel, palm stearin biodiesel and alcohol blends. Clean Techn Environ Policy 19:157–173.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Datta A, Mandal BK (2017) An experimental investigation on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a variable compression ratio diesel engine using diesel and palm stearin methyl ester. Clean Techn Environ Policy 19:1297–1312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Chuah LF, Aziz ARA, Yusup S et al (2015) Performance and emission of diesel engine fuelled by waste cooking oil methyl ester derived from palm olein using hydrodynamic cavitation. Clean Techn Environ Policy 17:2229–2241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Capuano D, Costa M, Di Fraia S et al (2017) Direct use of waste vegetable oil in internal combustion engines. Renew Sust Energ Rev 69:759–770.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Shrigiri BM, Hebbal OD, Reddy KH (2016) Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a semi-adiabatic diesel engine using cotton seed and neem kernel oil methyl esters. Alexandria Eng J 55:699–706.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Emberger P, Hebecker D, Pickel P et al (2016) Emission behaviour of vegetable oil fuel compatible tractors fuelled with different pure vegetable oils. Fuel 167:257–270.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Torres-García M, García-Martín JF, Jiménez-Espadafor Aguilar FJ et al (2020) Vegetable oils as renewable fuels for power plants based on low and medium speed diesel engines. J Energy Inst 93:953–961.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ramalingam KM, Kandasamy A, Subramani L et al (2018) An assessment of combustion, performance characteristics and emission control strategy by adding anti-oxidant additive in emulsified fuel. Atmos Pollut Res 9:959–967.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Dhinesh B, Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani J, Parthasarathy M, Annamalai K (2016) An assessment on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine powered by Cymbopogon flexuosus biofuel. Energy Convers Manag 117:466–474.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Mrad N, Varuvel EG, Tazerout M, Aloui F (2012) Effects of biofuel from fish oil industrial residue - diesel blends in diesel engine. Energy 44:955–963.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Janakiraman S, Lakshmanan T, Chandran V, Subramani L (2020) Comparative behavior of various nano additives in a DIESEL engine powered by novel Garcinia gummi-gutta biodiesel. J Clean Prod 245:118940.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Wu Q, Xie X, Wang Y, Roskilly T (2018) Effect of carbon coated aluminum nanoparticles as additive to biodiesel-diesel blends on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine. Appl Energy 221:597–604.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Radhakrishnan S, Munuswamy DB, Devarajan Y, Mahalingam A (2019) Performance, emission and combustion study on neat biodiesel and water blends fuelled research diesel engine. Heat Mass Transf und Stoffuebertragung 55:1229–1237.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Vellaiyan S (2020) Combustion, performance and emission evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with soybean biodiesel and its water blends. Energy 201:117633.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Sadeq AM, Bassiony MA, Elbashir AM et al (2019) Combustion and emissions of a diesel engine utilizing novel intake manifold designs and running on alternative fuels. Fuel 255:115769.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Garud V, Bhoite S, Patil S et al (2017) Performance and CombustionCharacteristics of thermal barrier coated (YSZ) low heat rejection diesel engine. Mater Today Proc 4:188–194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Rajendra Prasath B, Tamilporai P, Shabir MF (2010) Analysis of combustion, performance and emission characteristics of low heat rejection engine using biodiesel. Int J Therm Sci 49:2483–2490.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Musthafa MM (2019) A comparative study on coated and uncoated diesel engine performance and emissions running on dual fuel (LPG – biodiesel) with and without additive. Ind Crop Prod 128:194–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Gholinia M, Pourfallah M, Chamani HR (2018) Numerical investigation of heat transfers in the water jacket of heavy duty diesel engine by considering boiling phenomenon. Case Stud Therm Eng 12:497–509.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Gholinia M, Armin M, Ranjbar AA, Ganji DD (2019) Numerical thermal study on CNTs/ C2H6O2- H2O hybrid base nanofluid upon a porous stretching cylinder under impact of magnetic source. Case Stud Therm Eng 14:100490.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Gholinia M, Moosavi SAHK, Pourfallah M et al (2019) A numerical treatment of the TiO2/C2H6O2–H2O hybrid base nanofluid inside a porous cavity under the impact of shape factor in MHD flow. Int J Ambient Energy 0750.

  24. 24.

    Pourfallah M, Armin M (2019) An experimental and numerical study of the effects of reformer gas (H2 and CO) enrichment on the natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. Heat Mass Transf und Stoffuebertragung 55:1947–1957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Gad MS, Jayaraj S (2020) A comparative study on the effect of nano-additives on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine run on Jatropha biodiesel. Fuel 267:117168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Hoseini SS, Najafi G, Ghobadian B et al (2020) Performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine using graphene oxide (GO) nano-particles additives in biodiesel-diesel blends. Renew Energy 145:458–465.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Bora P, Boro J, Konwar LJ, Deka D (2016) Formulation of microemulsion based hybrid biofuel from waste cooking oil – a comparative study with biodiesel. J Energy Inst 89:560–568.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Kumar S, Dinesha P, Ajay CM, Kabbur P (2020) Combined effect of oxygenated liquid and metal oxide nanoparticle fuel additives on the combustion characteristics of a biodiesel engine operated with higher blend percentages. Energy 197:117194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Devarajan Y, Munuswamy DB, Mahalingam A (2019) Investigation on behavior of diesel engine performance, emission, and combustion characteristics using nano-additive in neat biodiesel. Heat Mass Transf und Stoffuebertragung 55:1641–1650.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Najafi G (2018) Diesel engine combustion characteristics using nano-particles in biodiesel-diesel blends. Fuel 212:668–678.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Vinukumar K, Azhagurajan A, Vettivel SC, Vedaraman N (2018) Rice husk as nanoadditive in diesel–biodiesel fuel blends used in diesel engine. J Therm Anal Calorim 131:1333–1343.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Yesilyurt MK (2019) The effects of the fuel injection pressure on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with waste cooking oil biodiesel-diesel blends. Renew Energy 132:649–666.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Thirunavukkarasu M, Ravindran R, Saravanan CG et al (2019) Synthesis and characterization of gaseous fuel from Jatropha oil through catalytic reactor and its performance in DI diesel engine. J Therm Anal Calorim 136:305–315.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Manigandan S, Atabani AE, Ponnusamy VK et al (2020) Effect of hydrogen and multiwall carbon nanotubes blends on combustion performance and emission of diesel engine using Taguchi approach. Fuel 276:118120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Yuvarajan D, Dinesh Babu M, BeemKumar N, Amith Kishore P (2018) Experimental investigation on the influence of titanium dioxide nanofluid on emission pattern of biodiesel in a diesel engine. Atmos Pollut Res 9:47–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Dhahad HA, Chaichan MT (2020) The impact of adding nano-Al2O3 and nano-ZnO to Iraqi diesel fuel in terms of compression ignition engines’ performance and emitted pollutants. Therm Sci Eng Prog 18:100535.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Rai RK, Sahoo RR (2019) Effective power and effective power density analysis for water in diesel emulsion as fuel in diesel engine performance. Energy 180:893–902.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Saravanan A, Murugan M, Sreenivasa Reddy M, Parida S, (2020) Performance and emission characteristics of variable compression ratio CI engine fueled with dual biodiesel blends of Rapeseed and Mahua. Fuel 263:116751

  39. 39.

    Yesilyurt MK, Aydin M (2020) Experimental investigation on the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression-ignition engine fueled with cottonseed oil biodiesel/diethyl ether/diesel fuel blends. Energy Convers Manag 205:112355.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Kadir Yesilyurt M, Cesur C (2020) Biodiesel synthesis from Styrax officinalis L. seed oil as a novel and potential non-edible feedstock: a parametric optimization study through the Taguchi technique. Fuel 265:117025.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Yesilyurt MK (2018) The evaluation of a direct injection diesel engine operating with waste cooking oil biodiesel in point of the environmental and enviroeconomic aspects. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff 40:654–661.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Krishnamoorthi M, Malayalamurthi R (2018) Experimental investigation on the availability, performance, combustion and emission distinctiveness of bael oil/ diesel/ diethyl ether blends powered in a variable compression ratio diesel engine. Heat Mass Transf und Stoffuebertragung 54:2023–2044.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Dash SK, Lingfa P (2018) Performance evaluation of Nahar oil–diesel blends in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. International Journal of Green Energy 15(6):400–405

  44. 44.

    Dash SK (2020) Effect of CR on the performance, emission and heat release rate of a DI diesel engine run by B20 blend of waste cooking biodiesel in diesel fuel. In: Ghosh S., Sen R., Chanakya H., Pariatamby A. (eds) Bioresource Utilization and Bioprocess. Springer, Singapore.

  45. 45.

    Yesilyurt MK (2020) A detailed investigation on the performance, combustion, and exhaust emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on the blend of diesel fuel, biodiesel and 1-heptanol (C7 alcohol) as a next-generation higher alcohol. Fuel 275:117893.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Kumar AM, Kannan M, Nataraj G (2020) A study on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine powered by nano-emulsion of waste orange peel oil biodiesel. Renew Energy 146:1781–1795.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Abedin MJ, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA et al (2014) Combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of low heat rejection engine operating on various biodiesels and vegetable oils. Energy Convers Manag 85:173–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Arunkumar M, Kannan M, Murali G (2019) Experimental studies on engine performance and emission characteristics using castor biodiesel as fuel in CI engine. Renew Energy 131:737–744.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Karthickeyan V, Ashok B, Thiyagarajan S et al (2020) Comparative analysis on the influence of antioxidants role with Pistacia khinjuk oil biodiesel to reduce emission in diesel engine. Heat Mass Transf und Stoffuebertragung 56:1275–1292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to P.V Elumalai.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The original version of this article was revised: The names of the authors were incorrect.

1. Parathasarathy should be Parthasarathy.

2. Mohamad Iqubal corrected name in the proof Mohamed Iqbal

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Elumalai, P., Sivakandhan, C., Parthasarathy, M. et al. Investigation on the mitigation of environmental harmful emissions by incorporating nanoparticles to biofuel water nano emulsion in low heat rejection engine. Heat Mass Transfer (2021).

Download citation