Thermal design, rating and second law analysis of shell and tube condensers based on Taguchi optimization for waste heat recovery based thermal desalination plants

  • Balaji Chandrakanth
  • Venkatesan G
  • Prakash Kumar L.S.S
  • Purnima Jalihal
  • Iniyan S


The present work discusses the design and selection of a shell and tube condenser used in Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD). To optimize the key geometrical and process parameters of the condenser with multiple parameters and levels, a design of an experiment approach using Taguchi method was chosen. An orthogonal array (OA) of 25 designs was selected for this study. The condenser was designed, analysed using HTRI software and the heat transfer area with respective tube side pressure drop were computed using the same, as these two objective functions determine the capital and running cost of the condenser. There was a complex trade off between the heat transfer area and pressure drop in the analysis, however second law analysis was worked out for determining the optimal heat transfer area vs pressure drop for condensing the required heat load.



Net cross flow / heat transfer area (m2)


Specific heat (J/kgK)


HTRI Shell side flow regime parameter


Diameter of tube


Cross flow correction factor


Friction factor


Isothermal friction factor


B stream flow fraction (≅0.6)


Momentum recovery factor


Total mass flux (kg/m2s)


Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)


Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)


Thermal conductivity of wall (W/mK)


Tube Length (m)


Total mass flow rate (kg/s)


Number of tubes


Prandtl number


Tube pitch (m)


Heat capacity ratio


Fouling resistance (m2K/W)


Homogenous liquid volume fraction


Reynolds number


Entropy generated


Thermal effectiveness


Temperature of Fluid (K)


Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)


Weight of vapour fraction


Pressure drop (kPa)


Temperature difference (K)


Two phase momentum pressure drop (kPa)

Greek Symbols


Density (kg/m3)


Homogenous dynamic Viscosity (Ns/m2)


Temperature profile function


Ratio of two phase to vapor phase frictional pressure drop


Momentum diffusivity (m2/s)


Physical property correction factor, heat transfer


Physical property correction factor, pressure drop



Cold fluid


Hot fluid


Shell side


Tube side


Single phase


Wall temperature










Two phase


Friction component


Momentum component



This work has been done under the funding of Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Govt. of India.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Balaji Chandrakanth
    • 1
  • Venkatesan G
    • 1
  • Prakash Kumar L.S.S
    • 1
  • Purnima Jalihal
    • 1
  • Iniyan S
    • 2
  1. 1.Energy& Fresh Water groupNational Institute of Ocean TechnologyChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Institute of Energy Studies, College of Engineering, GuindyChennaiIndia

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