Heat and Mass Transfer

, Volume 54, Issue 5, pp 1531–1543 | Cite as

Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

  • Muhammad Mahabat Khan
  • Nadeem Ahmed Sheikh
  • Azfar Khalid
  • Waqas Akbar Lughmani


An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector’s nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.


Compliance with ethical standards

Statement of conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Mahabat Khan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nadeem Ahmed Sheikh
    • 3
  • Azfar Khalid
    • 1
  • Waqas Akbar Lughmani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringCapital University of Science and TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et d’AcoustiqueÉcullyFrance
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHITEC UniversityTaxilaPakistan

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