Table 1 Charact/eristics of included randomized controlled trials

From: The effect of tocilizumab on mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Study design Country Age (median/mean) Proportion of patients who required respiratory support at baseline (%) Median serum interleukin-6 level (pg/mL) Regimen of tocilizumab Mortality1 Adjusted estimate for primary outcome2 (95% CI) Risk of bias3
Tocilizumab users (n/N; %) Non-tocilizumab users (n/N; %) Adjusted estimate (95% CI)
Stone et al. [5] Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial United States Tocilizumab users = 61.6
Non-tocilizumab users = 56.5
Tocilizumab users = 85.7
Non-tocilizumab users = 80.5
Tocilizumab users = 23.6
Non-tocilizumab users = 25.4
Single dose of intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg/kg infusion, maximum 800 mg) 9/161; 5.6 3/81; 3.8 HR = 1.52
(0.41–5.61)
HR = 0.83
(0.38–1.81)
Low
Rosas et al. [6] Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Global (North America, Europe) Tocilizumab users = 60.9
Non-tocilizumab users = 60.6
Tocilizumab users = 96.9
Non-tocilizumab users = 95.8
Tocilizumab users = 20.2
Non-tocilizumab users = 19.5
Single dose of intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg/kg infusion, maximum 800 mg) 58/294; 19.7 28/144; 19.4 Not reported Not reported Low
Salvarani et al. [7] Open-label, randomized controlled trial Italy Tocilizumab users = 61.5
Non-tocilizumab users = 60.0
Tocilizumab users = 100.0
Non-tocilizumab users = 100.0
Tocilizumab users = 50.4
Non-tocilizumab users = 34.3
Intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg/kg infusion, maximum 800 mg) within 8 h from randomization, followed by a second dose after 12 h 2/60; 3.3 1/63; 1.6 Not reported Not reported Some concerns
Hermine et al. [8] Open-label, bayesian randomized controlled trial France Tocilizumab users = 64.0
Non-tocilizumab users = 63.3
Tocilizumab users = 100.0
Non-tocilizumab users = 100.0
Not reported Intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg/kg infusion, maximum 800 mg) on day 1, with additional fixed dose of 400 mg as intravenous infusion on day 3 if oxygen requirement was not decreased by more than 50% 7/63; 11.1 8/67; 11.9 HR = 0.92
(0.33–2.53)
HR = 0.58
(0.26–1.23)
Some concerns
Salama et al. [9] Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Global (United States, Peru, Brazil, Kenya, South Africa, Mexico) Tocilizumab users = 56.0
Non-tocilizumab users = 55.6
Tocilizumab users = 90.4
Non-tocilizumab users = 91.4
Not reported Intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg/kg infusion, maximum 800 mg), with a second dose 8–24 h later if sustained fever or at least a one-category worsening on the 7-category ordinal scale of clinical status 26/249; 10.4 11/128; 8.6 HR = 1.04
(0.63–1.83)
HR = 0.56
(0.33–0.97)
Low
The REMAP-CAP Investigators [10] Open-label, randomized, multifactorial, adaptive platform trial Global Tocilizumab users = 61.5
Non-tocilizumab users = 61.1
Tocilizumab users = 99.7
Non-tocilizumab users = 99.5
Not reported Intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg/kg infusion, maximum 800 mg), with a second dose 12–24 h later at the discretion of the treating clinician 98/350; 28.0 142/397; 35.8 Some concerns
  1. 1Mortality outcome was reported by day 28 in all trials except the trial by Salvarani et al. which reported by day 30
  2. 2Mechanical ventilation or all-cause mortality by day 28
  3. 3Risk of bias was assessed using Version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials