European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

, Volume 74, Issue 2, pp 249–250 | Cite as

Journals’ TOP guidelines transparency level should be disclosed

  • Rafael Dal-Ré
Letter to the Editor

In a further step in their aim to enhance transparency and replication of research, European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, and more than 2900 journals—including Science journals and Nature Group journals—and organizations are signatories of the Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) guidelines [1]. However, this is not enough. TOP guidelines were first issued in 2015 [2] acknowledging that most scientists endorse transparency, openness, and reproducibility as norms and values to be routinely practiced.

These guidelines consider eight standards: citation standards, data transparency, analytic methods (code) transparency, research materials transparency, design and analysis transparency, preregistration of studies, preregistration of analysis plans, and replication. Each standard has three levels of transparency from level I (the mildest) to level III (the strongest) (Table 1). Thus, for instance, when referring to “Study preregistration,” level I requires that the “Article...


Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The author declares that he has no competing interests.


  1. 1.
    Center for Open Science. TOP Guidelines.
  2. 2.
    Nosek BA, Alter G, Bank, GC et al (2015) Scientific standards. Promoting an open research culture. Science 348:1422–1425CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jansen of Lorkeers SJ, Doevendans PA, Chamuleau SA (2014) All preclinical trials should be registered in advance in an online registry. Eur J Clin Investig 44:891–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dal-Re R, Ioannidis JP, Bracken MB et al. (2014) Making prospective registration of observational research a reality. Sci Transl Med 6, 224cm1Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    National Institutes of Health. NIH policy on the dissemination of NIH-funded clinical trial information. NOT-OD-16-149. September 16, 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Research Institute-Fundación Jiménez Díaz University HospitalUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Unidad de Epidemiología, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Hospital Universitario Fundación Jiménez DíazUniversidadad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

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