Response of native marine sponges to invasive Tubastraea corals: a case study
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Despite the massive expansion of the invasive corals Tubastraea spp. in the Tropical Western Atlantic, some sponge species may outcompete them on a local scale. The aims of the present study were: (1) to describe the spatiotemporal dynamics of the benthic community and (2) to assess the interactions between marine sponges and invasive Tubastraea corals. Communities were monitored at four locations and four times (2013–2015) in Ilha Grande Bay, southeastern Brazil. The percent cover of the dominant taxa in the benthic communities was calculated and all interactions among native sponges and Tubastraea spp. corals counted within photoquadrats. These in situ observations were used to assess four categories of interaction types. We did not find statistical differences in the benthic communities among locations and times. Turf forming algae and Palythoa caribaeorum represented 60–70% of the benthic community. The number and types of interactions between sponges and corals differed significantly among locations. The most common interaction was contact without dominance. Iotrochota arenosa and Scopalina ruetzleri were the most common sponge species competing with Tubastraea spp. Furthermore, Desmapsamma anchorata and I. arenosa were the main sponge species able to occasionally kill the invasive corals by overgrowth. However, the slow rate of overgrowth by sponges was not able to prevent the fast expansion of the non-indigenous corals. Hence, population studies on native and alien species may help predict the effects of biological invasion on local biodiversity.
KeywordsPorifera Scleractinian corals Overgrowth Space competition Biological invasion
The authors express their gratitude to Dr. Eduardo Hajdu (Museu Nacional/UFRJ) for his assistance in the field and sponge identification. We also thank the help of the infrastructure from the Laboratório de Ecologia Marinha Bêntica/UERJ and some students and researchers who contributed to the present study, through assistance in the field and lab, such as Fabrine Costa, Mariana Aguiar, Larissa Marques, and Fernanda França; Dr. Vinícius Lima for help in statistical analysis (Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro), and Diana Ugalde (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) for field assistance. We acknowledgments Aurélio B.B. Ferreira for help with the manuscript. Also we thank Dra. Sônia Santos for help and the staff from the Centro de Estudo Ambientais e Desenvolvimento Sustentável-CEADS/UERJ for the use of facilities. AGS and HFMF gratefully acknowledge the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), which granted their Master scholarships. The authors also thank editors and anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was funded by Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro/FAPERJ (Grant No. E-26/110.353/2014), CAPES-Ciências do Mar (Grant No. 1137/2010), and Programa de Incentivo à Produção Científica, Técnica e Artística (UERJ).
Conflict of interest
All authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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