Detecting hyperthermal stress in larvae of the hermatypic coral Porites astreoides: the suitability of using biomarkers of oxidative stress versus heat-shock protein transcriptional expression
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Scleractinian coral populations are declining worldwide in response to a variety of factors including increases in sea surface temperatures. To evaluate the effects of predicted elevated seawater temperatures on coral recruitment, larvae from the coral Porites astreoides were exposed to seawater at ambient (27.3 °C) or elevated temperature (30.8 °C) conditions for 4, 24, or 48 h. Following exposure, larvae were tested for survival and settlement, oxidative stress, respiratory demand, and mRNA expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) 16 and 60. While elevated temperature had no effect on larval survival, settlement, or expression of Hsps, it did cause a significant increase in larval respiration, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase). The absence of a significant up-regulation of Hsp 16 or 60 expression in response to thermal stress suggests that the transcriptional expression of these genes is a less sensitive diagnostic tool compared to biomarkers of oxidative stress at the temperatures examined. The results of this study provide evidence that enhanced levels of oxidative stress are encountered in zooxanthellae-containing coral larvae in response to elevated temperatures and that this occurrence should be strongly considered for use as a biomarker when monitoring sub-lethal cellular responses to rising sea surface temperatures.
KeywordsOcean Acidification Scleractinian Coral Hermatypic Coral Coral Larva Coral Recruitment
We thank Tom Bartlett, Erin Hoover, Erica Robinson, and Rebecca Jamison for assistance with coral collection and larval husbandry. We thank Dr. Eric Johnson for assistance with statistical analysis. We also thank Erich Bartels for field assistance. This work was conducted under permit no. FKNMS-2011-038 issued by the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. This work was supported by the University of North Florida’s “Transformational Learning Opportunity” program and Coastal Biology Program. VP and RRW were supported by Mote Protect our Reefs Grant 2011-21. This is contribution #911 of the Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce.
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